Referral to emergency

If any of the following are present or suspected, please refer the patient to the emergency department (via ambulance if necessary) or seek emergent medical advice if in a remote region.

  • urosepsis
  • acute infant urinary tract infection (UTI) unresponsive to first-line treatment
  • concerns of severe UTI, symptoms may include
    • ongoing persistent fever of 38° or higher
    • persistent vomiting
    • malodorous/cloudy urine
    • serious dehydration
  • hypertension greater than 97th percentile for age
  • presumed UTI in infant less than 3 months of age and clinically unwell

Please contact the on-call registrar to discuss your concerns prior to referral.

For clinical advice, please telephone the relevant metropolitan Local Health Network switchboard and ask to speak to the relevant specialty service.

Southern Adelaide Local Health Network

Women's and Children's Health Network


Triage categories

Category 1 (appointment clinically indicated within 30 days)

  • infants aged 6 months of age with first presentation febrile UTI
  • babies greater than 6 months of age and/or children with a history of acute pyelonephritis
  • urosepsis in child with known significant renal tract abnormalities
  • hydronephrosis with UTI
  • concerns of bladder outlet obstruction

Category 2 (appointment clinically indicated within 90 days)

  • child with a minimum of three UTIs within the last 12 months
  • urinary tract infections with atypical bacteria
  • known renal tract abnormality transfer of care
  • infants and children with history of acute pyelonephritis/upper urinary tract infection post hospital admission without significant structural anomalies

Category 3 (appointment clinically indicated within 365 days)

  • nil

For more on outpatient referrals, see the general referral information page.

Essential referral information

Completion required before first appointment to ensure patients are ready for care. Please indicate in the referral if the patient is unable to access mandatory tests or investigations as they incur a cost or are unavailable locally.

  • identifies as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander  
  • relevant social history, including identifying within your referral if you feel your patient is from a under guardianship/out-of-home care arrangements and/or requires a third party to receive correspondence on their behalf
  • interpreter required
  • age
  • past medical/surgical/developmental/immunisation history
  • family history
  • current medications
  • allergies and sensitivities
  • presenting symptoms history, including:
    • onset
    • duration
    • frequency of urinary tract infections and age of first onset
    • concerning features
    • additional history of
      • constipation
      • fluid intake
      • personal hygiene
  • height/weight
  • body mass index (BMI)
  • growth chart trends
  • blood pressure trends
  • abdominal examination findings
  • neurological examination findings
  • assessment of central nervous system (CNS)/birth marks/dysmorphology
  • bladder chart, intake/output fluid chart
  • urinalysis (dipstick) result
  • relevant diagnostic/imaging reports, including location of company and accession number


  • mid-stream urine (MSU) microscopy, culture and sensitivity (M/C/S)
  • sexually active people – complete a sexually transmitted infection (STI) screen, including chlamydia and gonorrhoea which requires:
    • endocervical/penile swab for culture and
    • endocervical/penile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab or urine sample

Additional information to assist triage categorisation

  • assessment of urinary stream
  • pathology:
    • complete blood examination (CBE)
    • electrolytes, urea and creatinine (EUC)
    • liver function test (LFT)
    • estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
    • c-reactive protein (CRP)
  • kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB) ultrasound (US) required for:
    • child less than 12 months of age with first presentation urinary tract infection (UTI)
    • children greater than 1 year of age with recurrent UTI’s or atypical UTIs
  • quality of life concerns including missed work/school/extracurricular activities