Referral to emergency

If any of the following are present or suspected, please refer the patient to the emergency department (via ambulance if necessary) or seek emergent medical advice if in a remote region.

  • acute urinary retention
  • acute renal failure
  • acute/severe urinary tract calculi/colic with or without
    • urinary outlet obstruction
    • systemic signs of infection
  • severe and uncontrolled flank/back pain

Please contact the on-call registrar to discuss your concerns prior to referral.

For clinical advice, please telephone the relevant metropolitan Local Health Network switchboard and ask to speak to the relevant specialty service.

Southern Adelaide Local Health Network

Women's and Children's Health Network

Category 1 (appointment clinically indicated within 30 days)

  • outlet obstructive calculi/stone
  • proven calculi in ureter and any of the following:
    • decreased renal function and/or increasing pain
    • patients with single kidney and/or renal transplant
  • staghorn kidney stones
  • urinary tract calculi with urinary tract infections (UTIs)

Category 2 (appointment clinically indicated within 90 days)

  • asymptomatic renal calculi/stone greater than 5mm
  • bladder stone
  • confirmed calculi/stone in urinary tract and any of the following:
    • recurrent presentation
    • renal impairment
    • severe pain
    • unresponsive to first-line treatment

Category 3 (appointment clinically indicated within 365 days)

  • nil

For more on outpatient referrals, see the general referral information page.

Essential referral information

Completion required before first appointment to ensure patients are ready for care. Please indicate in the referral if the patient is unable to access mandatory tests or investigations as they incur a cost or are unavailable locally.

  • identifies as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander  
  • relevant social history, including identifying within your referral if you feel your patient is from a under guardianship/out-of-home care arrangements and/or requires a third party to receive correspondence on their behalf
  • interpreter required
  • age
  • past medical/surgical/psychosocial history e.g. known urinary tract anomalies
  • family history of:
    • stones, metabolic disease and renal failure
    • familial inherited disorders e.g. cystic fibrosis, Bartter’s, Lowe’s and Williams syndrome
  • current medications
  • allergies and sensitivities
  • presenting symptoms history, including:
    • age of first urinary tract infection (UTI)
    • onset/duration
    • frequency
    • diet/fluid intake history e.g. ketogenic diet, poor fluid intake
    • previous management trialled and outcomes
  • quality of life concerns including missed work/school/extracurricular activities
  • height/weight
  • body mass index (BMI)
  • growth chart trends
  • blood pressure (trends)
  • abdominal examination findings
  • bone structure
  • pre-natal and post-natal investigation summary
  • urinalysis (dipstick) result
  • bladder chart, intake/output fluid chart
  • pathology:
    • complete blood examination (CBE)
    • electrolytes, urea and creatinine (EUC)
    • liver function test (LFT)
    • estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
    • mid-stream urine (MSU) microscopy, culture and sensitivity (M/C/S)
  • kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB) ultrasound (US) and x-ray
  • relevant diagnostic/imaging reports, including location of company and accession number