Referral to emergency

If any of the following are present or suspected, please refer the patient to the emergency department (via ambulance if necessary) or seek emergent medical advice if in a remote region.

  • acute/severe urinary tract calculi/colic with or without:
    • urinary outlet obstruction
    • systemic signs of infection
    • decreased renal function
    • uncontrolled pain
    • haematuria
    • patients with single kidney and/or renal transplant
    • acute urinary retention

Please contact the urology registrar on call to discuss your concerns prior to referral.

For clinical advice, please telephone the relevant metropolitan Local Health Network switchboard and ask to speak to the relevant specialty service.

Central Adelaide Local Health Network

Northern Adelaide Local Health Network 

Southern Adelaide Local Health Network


  • urinary tract calculi/stone less than 5mm
  • nephrocalcinosis

Triage categories

Category 1 (appointment clinically indicated within 30 days)

  • proven calculi in ureter and any of the following:
    • decreased renal function and/or increasing pain
    • patients with single kidney and/or renal transplant

Category 2 (appointment clinically indicated within 90 days)

  • bladder calculi/stone
  • renal calculi greater than 1cm
  • staghorn calculi

Category 3 (appointment clinically indicated within 365 days)

  • asymptomatic calculi/stone greater than 5mm

For information on referral forms and how to import them, please view general referral information.

Essential referral information

Completion required before first appointment to ensure patients are ready for care. Please indicate in the referral if the patient is unable to access mandatory tests or investigations as they incur a cost or are unavailable locally.

  • identifies as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
  • identify within your referral if you feel your patient is from a vulnerable population and/or requires a third party to receive correspondence on their behalf
  • interpreter requirements
  • relevant past medical/surgical history
  • current medications, allergies
  • history of presenting complaint including:
    • onset
    • duration
    • concerning features
  • non-contrast intravenous pyelogram (IVP) computed tomography (CT), unless contraindicated
  • relevant diagnostic/imaging reports including location of company and accession number


  • complete blood examination (CBE)
  • electrolytes, urea and creatinine (EUC)
  • liver function test (LFT)
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
  • coagulation studies (Coags)
  • calcium (Ca)
  • phosphate (Po4)
  • urate
  • mid-stream urine (MSU) M/C/S
  • sexually active people complete a sexually transmitted infection (STI) screen, including chlamydia and gonorrhoea which requires:
    • endocervical/penile swab for culture and
    • endocervical/penile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab or urine sample

Additional information to assist triage categorisation

  • pathology:
    • urine cytology may help to prioritise referral

Clinical management advice

To ensure the passage of ureteric calculi, it is recommended to conduct a follow-up imaging after initial ultrasound (US) or confirmation imaging 4 to 6 weeks later. If the stone persists consider referral for assessment in specialist outpatient services.

Clinical resources

Consumer resources