Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection for health professionals
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was first recognised in Saudi Arabia in 2012. It is caused by infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). It was formerly called ‘novel coronavirus’. Initially it was confined to travellers in the Middle East, or contacts of travellers to the Middle East, however in 2015, there was a health care associated outbreak in the Republic of Korea resulting in 185 secondary and tertiary cases and 36 deaths. For up to date information on MERS-CoV see:
- World Health Organisation website for a current list of involved countries.
- Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Smart Traveller website for travel advice.
Severe disease and death is more common in older males and patients with underlying medical conditions. These underlying conditions have included diabetes, kidney disease, high blood pressure, asthma and lung diseases, cardiovascular disease and people with weakened immune systems such as people with cancer or taking certain medications.
- fever and chills
- shortness of breath
- breathing difficulties
- muscles and joint aches.
Less common symptoms include:
Severe disease and death is more common in older males and patients with underlying medical conditions. These underlying conditions have included diabetes, kidney disease, high blood pressure, asthma and lung diseases, cancer and cardiovascular disease.
From 2 to 14 days, most commonly 5 days.
Uncertain, cases are likely not infectious during the incubation period.
MERS-CoV infection has spread from person to person particularly amongst family members and in health care settings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. Some cases have a strong history of exposure to camels or camel products.
In the health care setting, airborne and contact precautions in addition to standard precautions, are recommended.
For further details please see the Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare.
Doctors should consider the possibility of MERS-CoV infection in patients with:
- an illness consistent with an acute febrile respiratory infection and a history of:
- travel to, or residence in, the Middle East* in the 14 days before illness onset (excluding transiting through an international airport for instance, less than 24 hours stay, remaining within the airport) or
- an illness consistent with an acute respiratory infection and contact with a suspected or confirmed MERS-CoV case in the 14 days before illness onset.
Request real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for MERS-CoV on respiratory specimens, preferably lower respiratory tract specimens. If initial tests are negative and MERS-CoV infection is still suspected, repeat testing is recommended. Use appropriate infection control precautions when taking specimens.
* Countries of the Middle East include: Bahrain, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestinian territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen.
There is no specific treatment for MERS-CoV infection.
MERS-CoV infection is a notifiable condition under the South Australian Public Health Act 2011. Notify any suspected or confirmed cases to the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch on 1300 232 272 (24 hours /7 days).
There is no vaccine available against MERS-CoV infection.
Resources and useful links
Further information for health professionals on MERS-CoV infection is available from the following resources:
- Australian Government Department of Health
- World Health Organization
- Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) - Series of National Guidelines
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (You’ve Got What?) is information for patients with causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of MERS-CoV.