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Last updated: June 2013
Spores or hyphae detected on a wet preparation or Gram stain from a high vaginal swab (60 to 70% sensitivity), and/or positive culture
Symptoms and/or signs of vulvovaginitis, eg vaginal discharge, vaginal itch or discomfort, external dysuria, vulvo-vaginal erythema, vulvar fissuring and satellite lesions.
Note: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is usually (80 to 90%) caused by Candida albicans. Other candida species or yeasts such as C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C.parapsilosis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae may also cause infection.
Treatment is only indicated for symptomatic women, as 10 to 20% of asymptomatic women in reproductive years may be colonised with Candida sp.
All topical and oral azole therapies give a clinical and mycological cure rate of over 80%.
Clotrimazole 200 mg pessaries intravaginally at night for 3 nights (A)
Clotrimazole 100 mg pessaries or cream 1% intravaginally at night for 6 nights (A)
Miconazole 100 mg pessaries or cream 2% intravaginally at night for 6 nights (A)
Fluconazole 150 mg orally as a single dose (D).
Topical azoles can cause local vulvovaginal irritation or burning.
Oral azoles (particularly itraconazole and ketoconazole), have rarely been associated with elevation of liver enzymes and drug-induced hepatitis.
Oral azoles have several clinically important drug interactions, including anecdotal reports of oral contraceptive failure with prolonged oral azole use.
The following points should be discussed:
Required if symptoms do not resolve or symptoms recur.
Clinical features are identical to acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. Approximately 5% of women of reproductive age with a primary episode of VVC will develop recurrent VVC.
The occurrence of at least four documented symptomatic episodes of vaginal candidiasis within 12 months, including two mycologically proven episodes
The exclusion of other common vaginal pathogens.
Exclude or manage associated factors such as:
7 to 14 days of topical therapy (as above)
Fluconazole 150 mg orally every third day for a total of 3 doses [day 1, 4, and 7] (D).
Clotrimazole 500 mg pessaries intravaginally at night, once weekly for six months (A)
Fluconazole 150 mg orally once weekly for six months (D)
Itraconazole* 50 to 100mg orally daily for six months (B3)
Ketoconazole 100 mg orally daily for six months (B3) (monitor LFTs).
This may occur in the following:
For further information on the diagnosis and management of vulvovaginal candidiasis contact Clinic 275.
These guidelines are based on review of current literature, current recommendations of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV and local expert opinion.
They are written primarily for use by Clinic 275 staff and some flexibility is required in applying them to certain private practice situations.