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Data Compendium 

Prevent 

Chief Public Health Officer s Report 2016-2018 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  87 

PREVENT 

Biomedical risk factors 

Indicator: Unhealthy weight 

Measure: Proportion of the population 5-17 years old with a BMI classified by Cole et al (2000) 

as overweight 

? 16.7% South Australian children aged 5-17 years were classified as overweight in 2016-18, and 

the figures are stable for the last decade. 

 

Measure: Proportion of the population 5-17 years old with a BMI classified by Cole et al (2000) 

as obese 

? 9.4% South Australian children aged 5-17 years were classified as obese in 2016-18. 

? The proportion of South Australian children that classified as obese has been slowly increasing 

for the last decade.  

? The lowest SEIFA group (most disadvantaged) had highest proportion of children being obese 

(17.6% in 2016-18). 

 

Figure 30: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-17 years who are overweight, July 
2003   March 2018 

 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  88 

Figure 31: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-17 years who are obese, July 2003   
March 2018 

 
Note: classification based on Cole et al (2000) [53] 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  89 

Table 47: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-17 years reporting BMI, July 2016   March 2018 

 
Normal Weight Overweight Obese 

Children 5-17 n/N % 95% CI n/N % 95% CI n/N % 95% CI 

All 1465/1982 73.9 (71.9-75.8) 331/1982 16.7 (15.1-18.4) 185/1982 9.4 (8.1-10.7) 

Male 780/1060 73.6 (70.9-76.2) 172/1060 16.2 (14.1-18.5) 108/1060 10.2 (8.5-12.1) 

Female 685/921 74.3 (71.5-77.1) 159/921 17.3 (14.9-19.8) 77/921 8.4 (6.7-10.3) 

          
Location 

Metro 1098/1468 74.8 (72.5-77.0) 236/1468 16.1 (14.3-18.0) 135/1468 9.2 (7.8-10.8) 

Rural 368/513 71.6 (67.7-75.5) 95/513 18.6 (15.3-22.1) 51/513 9.8 (7.6-12.8) 

          
Age 

5 to 9 478/692 69.1 (65.6-72.4) 123/692 17.8 (15.1-20.8) 91/692 13.2 (10.8-15.8) 

10 to 14 513/685 74.9 (71.5-78.0) 130/685 19.0 (16.2-22.0) 42/685 6.1 (4.5-8.1) 

15 to 17 475/605 78.4 (75.1-81.6) 78/605 12.9 (10.4-15.7) 52/605 8.7 (6.6-11.0) 

          
SEIFA 

Lowest 230/335 68.5 (63.5-73.4) 47/335 13.9 (10.6-18.1) 59/335 17.6 (13.8-22.0) 

Lowest 262/348 75.4 (70.6-79.6) 54/348 15.4 (12.0-19.6) 32/348 9.2 (6.5-12.6) 

Middle 262/379 69.1 (64.3-73.6) 78/379 20.5 (16.7-24.9) 40/379 10.4 (7.8-13.9) 

High 260/373 69.6 (64.9-74.2) 82/373 22.1 (18.0-26.4) 31/373 8.3 (5.8-11.4) 

Highest 448/538 83.3 (79.9-86.2) 66/538 12.3 (9.7-15.2) 24/538 4.4 (3.0-6.5) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  90 

Measure: Proportion of the South Australians, 18 years + old with a BMI 25-29.99, July 2002 - 

March  

? 34.4% of South Australian adults were classified as overweight in 2016-18, and the figure has 

been stable for the past decade. 

 
Figure 32: Proportion of South Australian adults aged 18 years and over who are overweight, 
July 2003   March 2018 

 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

Measure: Proportion of the South Australians 18 years+ old with a BMI&gt;=30 

? 28.0% South Australian adults were classified as obese in 2016-18. 

? The proportion of South Australian adults that were classified as obese has been gradually 

increasing (19.5% in 2002-03 to 28.3% in 2017-18). 

? The lowest SEIFA (most disadvantaged) group had the highest proportion of obese adults. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  91 

Figure 33: Proportion of South Australian adults aged 18 years and over who are obese, July 
2003   March 2018 

 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  92 

Table 48: Proportion of reported BMI for South Australian adults, July 2016   March 2018 

 
Underweight Normal Weight Overweight Obese 

Adults (18 years and 
over) n/N % 95% CI n/N % 95% CI n/N % 95% CI n/N % 95% CI 

All 197/9072 2.2 (1.9-2.5) 3225/9072 35.6 (34.6-36.5) 3113/9072 34.3 (33.3-35.3) 2537/9072 28.0 (27.0-28.9) 

Male 63/4455 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1481/4455 33.2 (31.9-34.6) 1784/4455 40.0 (38.6-41.5) 1128/4455 25.3 (24.1-26.6) 

Female 134/4617 2.9 (2.4-3.4) 1745/4617 37.8 (36.4-39.2) 1329/4617 28.8 (27.5-30.1) 1409/4617 30.5 (29.2-31.9) 

             
Location 

Metro 150/6534 2.3 (2.0-2.7) 2435/6534 37.3 (36.1-38.4) 2187/6534 33.5 (32.3-34.6) 1761/6534 27.0 (25.9-28.0) 

Rural 47/2538 1.8 (1.4-2.4) 790/2538 31.1 (29.3-32.9) 926/2538 36.5 (34.6-38.4) 776/2538 30.6 (28.8-32.4) 

             
Age 

18-29 68/1798 3.8 (3.0-4.7) 1101/1798 61.2 (59.0-63.5) 440/1798 24.5 (22.5-26.5) 189/1798 10.5 (9.2-12.0) 

30-49 60/2869 2.1 (1.6-2.7) 809/2869 28.2 (26.6-29.9) 1102/2869 38.4 (36.6-40.2) 897/2869 31.3 (29.6-33.0) 

50-69 43/3047 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 832/3047 27.3 (25.7-28.9) 1052/3047 34.5 (32.9-36.2) 1121/3047 36.8 (35.1-38.5) 

70 years and over 25/1358 1.8 (1.2-2.7) 484/1358 35.6 (33.1-38.2) 518/1358 38.2 (35.6-40.8) 330/1358 24.3 (22.1-26.6) 

             
SEIFA 

Lowest 44/1819 2.4 (1.8-3.2) 512/1819 28.2 (26.1-30.2) 622/1819 34.2 (32.0-36.4) 641/1819 35.2 (33.1-37.5) 

Lowest 36/1723 2.1 (1.5-2.8) 565/1723 32.8 (30.6-35.0) 621/1723 36.0 (33.8-38.3) 502/1723 29.1 (27.0-31.3) 

Middle 38/1770 2.1 (1.5-2.9) 566/1770 32.0 (29.8-34.2) 615/1770 34.7 (32.6-37.0) 551/1770 31.2 (29.0-33.3) 

High 47/1778 2.7 (2.0-3.5) 695/1778 39.1 (36.8-41.4) 614/1778 34.5 (32.3-36.8) 422/1778 23.7 (21.8-25.8) 

Highest 32/1957 1.6 (1.1-2.3) 885/1957 45.3 (43.0-47.4) 632/1957 32.3 (30.2-34.4) 407/1957 20.8 (19.0-22.6) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  93 

Measure: Proportion of pregnant women who are overweight or obese at their first antenatal 

visit (where first visit is prior to 20 weeks gestation) 

Reported height and weight at the first antenatal visit were used to calculate the Body Mass Index 

(BMI) for women who gave birth. This was considered valid only for women who attended the first 

antenatal visit before 20 weeks gestation. 

? Among 17,195 women who gave birth in 2016 who attended their first visit before 20 weeks 

gestation with valid weight and height measurements, 47.6% were overweight or obese 

(recorded a BMI ? 25 kg/m
2
). [54] 

 

Table 49: BMI of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 and 2016 

BMI 2015 2016 

(based on height and 
weight at first antenatal 
visit where gestation at 
first antenatal visit was &lt;20 
weeks) 

number % adjusted 
%* 
(n=16,995) 

number % adjusted 
%* 
(n=17,195) 

&lt;18.5 (underweight) 461 2.6 2.7 421 2.3 2.5 

18.5   24.9 (normal) 7644 42.6 45.0 7850 43 45.7 

25.0   29.9 (overweight) 4797 26.7 28.2 4772 26.1 27.8 

30.0   34.9 (obese) 2346 13.1 13.8 2315 12.7 13.5 

35.0   39.9 (severely obese) 1100 6.1 6.5 1083 5.9 6.3 

40 or more (morbidly obese) 647 3.6 3.8 754 4.1 4.4 

Unknown 947 5.3  1072 5.9 
 

Total 17942 100  18,267 100 100 

* excluding  unknown  
Source: Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia (2015 and 2016 report) [54, 55] 

 

Indicator: High blood pressure 

Measure: Prevalence of high blood pressure in adults  self reported 

? 22.6% of South Australian adults reported having high blood pressure in 2016-18. 

? More than half of people aged 70 years and over reported having high blood pressure in 2016-18 

(57.9%). 

? Lower three quintile groups (more disadvantaged) had higher proportion of people reported 

having high blood pressure, compare to tow highest quintile of SEIFA groups (less 

disadvantaged).  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  94 

Table 50: Proportion of South Australians aged ?18 years reporting high blood pressure, July 
2016 to March 2018 

 n/N % 95% CI 

All 2202/9760 22.6 (21.7-23.4) 

Male 1029/4718 21.8 (20.6-23.0) 

Female 1173/5041 23.3 (22.1-24.5) 

Location    

Metro 1602/7007 22.9 (21.9-23.9) 

Rural 600/2753 21.8 (20.3-23.4) 

Age    

18-29 17/1972 0.9 (0.5-1.3) 

30-49 307/3097 9.9 (8.9-11.0) 

50-69 1026/3218 31.9 (30.3-33.5) 

70 years and over 852/1473 57.9 (55.3-60.3) 

SEIFA    

Lowest 529/1976 26.8 (24.9-28.8) 

Lowest 438/1856 23.6 (21.7-25.6) 

Middle 519/1933 26.8 (24.9-28.9) 

High 367/1898 19.3 (17.6-21.2) 

Highest 349/2073 16.8 (15.3-18.5) 

Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 
Figure 34: Proportion of South Australians aged ?18 years reporting high blood pressure, 
2003-04 to 2017-18 

 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  95 

Indicator: High blood total cholesterol 

Measure: Prevalence of high blood cholesterol in adults   self reported 

? 17.1% of South Australian adults reported having high blood cholesterol in 2016-18. 

? The proportion of high blood cholesterol increases with age, and was 43.6% among people aged 

70 years and over. 

? The middle SEIFA group had the highest proportion of people that reported having high 

cholesterol.  

 
Table 51: Proportion of South Australians aged 18 years reporting high blood cholesterol, July 
2016 to March 2018 

 n/N % 95% CI 

All 1674/9760 17.1 (16.4-17.9) 

Male 821/4718 17.4 (16.3-18.5) 

Female 852/5041 16.9 (15.9-18.0) 

Location    

Metro 1207/7007 17.2 (16.4-18.1) 

Rural 467/2753 17.0 (15.6-18.4) 

Age    

18-29 22/1972 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 

30-49 215/3097 6.9 (6.1-7.9) 

50-69 794/3218 24.7 (23.2-26.2) 

70 years and over 642/1473 43.6 (41.1-46.1) 

SEIFA    

Lowest 360/1976 18.2 (16.6-20.0) 

Lowest 336/1856 18.1 (16.4-19.9) 

Middle 420/1933 21.7 (19.9-23.6) 

High 280/1898 14.8 (13.2-16.4) 

Highest 276/2073 13.3 (11.9-14.8) 

Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  96 

Figure 35: Proportion of South Australians aged ?18 years reporting high blood cholesterol, 
2003-04 to 2017-18 

 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 

 

  



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  97 

Behavioural risk factors 

Indicator: Tobacco smoking 

Measure: Proportion of the South Australian population (age 15 years and over) who smoke on 

a daily basis. 

 

? In 2017, 16.5% of the South Australian population reported that they smoke daily, weekly or less 

than weekly. 

? The proportion of South Australians aged 15 to 29 years who reported smoking daily, weekly or 

less than weekly in 2017 was 14.7% 

?  The proportion of South Australians living in the lowest SEIFA quintiles (most disadvantaged) 

who reported smoking daily, weekly or less than weekly in 2017 was 24.0% 

? While smoking prevalence can fluctuate on a year-to-year basis, a general downward trend was 

evident over time for all groups. There was no statistically significant change in smoking rates 

from 2016 to 2017. 

 
Figure 36: Proportion of daily, weekly or less than weekly smoking in South Australia (2007-
2017) 

 
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey, Drugs and Alcohol Services South Australia [56] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Most disadvantaged 26.3 28.6 27.2 28.2 23.9 25.1 27.1 20.1 24.3 21.6 24

15-29 years 23 23.4 21.6 22.9 17.6 18.2 19.5 14.8 16.9 12.3 14.7

All South Australians 20.1 19.5 20.7 20.5 17.6 16.7 19.4 15.7 15.7 14.9 16.5

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CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  98 

Table 52: Proportion of South Australians aged 15 years and over reporting smoking daily, 
weekly or less than weekly, 2017 

  Total N % 95% CI 

All 2975 16.5 1.6 

Sex 

Male* 1450 20.7 2.5 

Female 1525 12.4 2.0 

Location 

Metropolitan 2163 13.5 1.7 

Rural* 813 21.8 3.4 

Age (years) 

15-29 640 14.7 3.3 

30-44 728 20.7 3.5 

45-59 724 21.5 3.6 

60 and over 883 8.7 2.2 

SEIFA** 

Lowest 729 24.0 3.7 

Low 635 19.1 3.7 

Middle 578 11.6 3.1 

High 539 13.2 3.4 

Highest 494 7.1 2.7 

CI: Confidence Interval. SEIFA: Socio-Economic Index For Areas. *Statistically significant increase from 2016 (p&lt;0.05). 
**Statistically significant difference between the two most disadvantaged quintiles (21.8 %) and the three remaining quintiles 
(10.8%) in 2017.  
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey 
Note: The weighting of the data can result in rounding discrepancies or totals not adding 
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey, Drugs and Alcohol Services South Australia [56] 

 

Table 53: Proportion of daily tobacco smokers, people aged ?14 years, South Australia, 1998 
to 2016 

  1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 

SA 19.3 20.1 16.5 16.5 15.0 12.8 10.8 

Australia 21.8 19.4 17.5 16.6 15.1 12.8 12.2 

Source: National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) 2016 [57] 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  99 

Measure: Proportion of the Aboriginal South Australian population (age 18 years old +) who 

smoke on a daily basis. 

? Prevalence of daily smokers is higher among Aboriginal South Australians aged 15 years and 

over, and it was 35% in 2014 (13% in non-Aboriginal), although there have been decreases over 

time (35% in 2014-15 vs . 40% in 2011-13).[58]  

 
Figure 37: Proportion of daily smokers among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South 
Australians aged 15* years and over, 2007-08 to 2014-15 

 
* Non-Aboriginal data for 2007-08 include persons aged 18 years and over 
Source: DASSA Statistical Bulletin, Number 13 [58] 
 

? The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey reported that after a period of 

minimal change in smoking prevalence among Aboriginal people from 2002 to 2008, a significant 

reduction in daily smoking prevalence was observed from 2008 to 2014-15.[21] 

? South Australia experienced the largest percentage point decrease over time of all the states and 

territories in Australia, and currently has one of the lowest daily smoking rates among Aboriginal 

adults aged 18 years and over in Australia. [21] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46 

40 

35 

19 
15 

13 

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Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  100 

Figure 38: Age-standardised rates of current daily smokers, National Aboriginal and Torres 
Strait Islander Social Survey, Australia, 2014-15 

 
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey, Drugs and Alcohol Services South Australia  [21, 58] 

 

Measure: Proportion of women who are smokers at their first antenatal visit (by Aboriginal 

status). 

? About 9.4% of pregnant women were reported to be smokers at their first antenatal visit in 2016, 

and 2.5% had quit smoking before their first visit.  Smoking status was unknown for 0.8% of 

women. The proportion of all women smoking during pregnancy has been declining in the state, 

from 25% in 1998 to 9.9% in 2015.  

? The proportion of Aboriginal women who reported that they smoked at the first antenatal visit 

(43.9%) increased slightly from 2015 (42.6%). This was considerably higher than non-Aboriginal 

women (8.1%). Additionally, 4.9% of Aboriginal women reported that they quit smoking in 

pregnancy prior to their first antenatal visit, compared to 2.4% of non-Aboriginal women. 

 

Table 54: Tobacco smoking status at first antenatal visit, non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal 
women who gave birth, South Australia, 2016 

Smoking status Non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Total 

 
Number % Number % Number % 

Smoker 1,535 8.1 329 43.9 1,864 9.4 

Quit before 1
st
 visit 458 2.4 37 4.9 495 2.5 

Non-smoker 16,905 88.9 366 48.8 17,271 87.4 

Unknown smoking 
status 

117 0.6 18 2.4 135 0.7 

Total 19,015 100 750 100 19,765 100 
Source: Pregnancy outcome in South Australia 2016, SA Health 

 

 

 

 

NSW VIC QLD SA WA TAS NT ACT AUST

Aboriginal 39.6 39.8 40.5 38.2 43.1 37.6 43.9 35.7 40.6

Non-Aboriginal 13.9 14 16 13.4 14 19 18.4 11.9 14.5

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CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  101 

Measure: The average age that people (15-24 years old) in SA commenced daily smoking (self-

reported). 

? The average age that people aged 15-24 years first began to smoke daily (including current and 

former daily smokers) in 2017 was 16.0 (SD=2.6), a slight decrease from 16.7 (SD=2.2) in 2016. 

 

Measure: Number of premises license/number of sales to minors detected 

 

Table 55: Tobacco sales for minors, South Australia, 2016-17 &amp; 2017-18 

 
2016-2017 2017-2018 

Number of premises licensed 1967 1961 

Number of sales to minors 
detected 

The program was not 
undertaken in the 2016-2017 

9 out of the 259 retailers 
tested 

Source: Public Health Service, SA Health 

 

  



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  102 

Indicator: Risky alcohol consumption 

Measure: Proportion of South Australians (15 year old +) at risk of injury from a single drinking 

occasion in the last month  

In 2017, 25 per cent of South Australians aged 15 years and over reported drinking at levels that put 

them at risk of injury on a single occasion at least monthly, and this has not changed since 2011 

(Figure 39). 

? 43 per cent of South Australians aged 15 years and over reported drinking at levels that put them 

at risk of injury from a single drinking occasion at least once in the previous 12 months. 

? 12 per cent of South Australians aged 15 years and over reported drinking at levels that put them 

at risk of injury from a single drinking occasion at least weekly. 

? There was a significant decrease between 2011 (22%) and 2017 (18%) in the proportion of men 

who reported drinking at these levels at least weekly; risky drinking at least monthly has 

remained stable among women. 

? In 2017, adults aged 20-29 years were most likely to report drinking at risky levels at least 

monthly (38%), although this has decreased significantly since 2012 (48%). 

? Between 2011 and 2017, there were significant decreases in risky drinking at least monthly 

among those aged 15-19 (from 29% to 15%) and 30-39 (from 32% to 26%) years. 

 

Figure 39   Proportion of South Australians aged 15 years and over who drank at levels that 
put them at risk of injury from a single drinking occasion at least monthly, 2011-2017 

 
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey, Drugs and Alcohol Services South Australia

1
 

 

 

 

 

                                                      
1
 Drug and Alcohol Services South Australia, Health Omnibus Survey 2017: a summary of the results relating to alcohol 

consumption, in DASSA Statistical Bulletin Number 16. 2018, SA Health: Adelaide. 

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

All 26.4 29.7 28.5 27.2 26.2 26.1 24.6

Males 36.4 41.2 39.2 36.3 35.1 35.4 34.1

Females 16.8 18.7 18.4 18.3 17.8 17.1 15.5

0.0

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CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  103 

Table 56: Proportion of South Australians aged 15 years and over who drank at levels that put 
them at risk of injury from a single drinking occasion at least monthly (2017) 

 Total N % 95% CI 

All 2976 24.6  

Sex 

Male 1453 34.1  

Female 1524 15.5  

Location 

Metropolitan* 2223 23.5  

Country 754 27.8  

Age (years) 

15-19* 170 15.1  

20-29 470 37.7  

30-39 512 26.3  

40-49 439 32.4  

50-59 503 25.4  

60 and over 884 14.1  

SEIFA 

Lowest 694 23.6  

Low 452 24.2  

Middle 571 23.0  

High 653 28.5  

Highest 607 23.3  

Confidence Intervals were not available for these data. SEIFA: Socio-Economic Index For Areas. *Statistically significant 
decrease from 2016 (p&lt;0.05).  
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey 
Note: The weighting of the data can result in rounding discrepancies or totals not adding 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  104 

In 2017, 16 per cent of South Australians aged 15 years and over reported drinking at levels that put 

them at risk of disease or injury over a lifetime, a significant decrease since 2011 (19%). 

? Lifetime risky drinking decreased significantly for men between 2011 (29%) and 2017 (24%). 

? Lifetime risky drinking significantly decreased for women between 2014 (12%) and 2015 (9%), 

and remained stable in 2016 and 2017. 

? In 2017, adults aged 40-49 years were most likely to report drinking at risky levels over a lifetime 

(22%), followed by those aged 50-59 years (20%). 

? There were significant decreases in lifetime risk between 2011 and 2017 for those aged 15-19 

(from 15% to 3.7%), 20-29 (from 24% to 14%), and 30-39 (from 21% to 14%) years. 

? In South Australian, people in their 50s were the most likely to be lifetime risky drinkers.  

 

Figure 40   Proportion of South Australians aged 15 years and over who drank at levels that 
put them at risk of disease or injury over a lifetime, 2011-2017 

 
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey, Drugs and Alcohol Services South Australia2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      
2
 Ibid. 

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

All 19.1 22.5 21.7 19.6 17.7 16.5 15.6

Males 29.3 33.7 33.0 27.5 26.6 24.2 23.7

Females 9.3 11.7 11.0 11.9 9.1 9.1 7.8

0.0

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%
) 



 
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Table 57: Proportion of South Australians aged 15 years and over who drank at levels that put 
them at risk of injury or disease over a lifetime, 2017 

 Total N % 95% CI 

All 2976 15.6  

Sex 

Male 1453 23.7  

Female 1524 7.8  

Location 

Metropolitan* 2223 14.4  

Country 754 19.1  

Age (years) 

15-19 170 3.7  

20-29 470 13.5  

30-39 512 13.9  

40-49 439 21.6  

50-59 503 20.3  

60 and over 884 14.3  

SEIFA 

Lowest 694 14.1  

Low 452 13.8  

Middle 571 17.4  

High 653 17.4  

Highest 607 14.9  

Confidence Intervals were not available for these data. SEIFA: Socio-Economic Index For Areas. *Statistically significant 
decrease from 2016 (p&lt;0.05).  
Data Source: Health Omnibus Survey 
Note: The weighting of the data can result in rounding discrepancies or totals not adding 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  106 

Table 58: Proportion of lifetime risk drinkers, people aged 14 years or older, by sex, South 
Australia, 2010 to 2016 

 SA Australia SA
(d)

 Australia 
(d)

 

Risk status 2010 2013 2016 2010 2013 2016 2016 2016 

Males   

Abstainers
(a)

 16.6 21.5 19.6 16.7 19.1 20.4 20.3 20.7 

Low risk
(b)

 54.1 50.3 58.7# 53.8 54.5 55.1 58.5 54.9 

Risky
(c)

 29.3 28.1 21.7# 29.6 26.5 24.5# 21.2 24.4 

Females   

Abstainers
(a)

 21.9 19.7 23.6 23.0 24.8 25.4 23.4 25.4 

Low risk
(b)

 67.5 71.3 66.3 65.4 65.2 64.8 66.1 64.7 

Risky
(c)

 10.5 9.0 10.1 11.6 10.0 9.8 10.5 9.9 

Persons   

Abstainers
(a)

 19.3 20.6 21.6 19.9 22.0 22.9 21.9 23.1 

Low risk
(b)

 60.9 60.9 62.6 59.6 59.9 60.0 62.4 59.9 

Risky(c) 19.7 18.5 15.8 20.5 18.2 17.1# 15.7 17.0 

Age group 
(years) 

        

14 19 14.6 *10.7 *4.5 15.3 8.1 6.2   

20 29 27.2 19.5 17.1 27.4 21.9 19.1#   

30 39 24.2 20.6 14.3 21.5 18.8 17.7   

40 49 19.6 24.5 17.9 22.0 22.5 20.6   

50 59 20.5 21.7 24.6 21.6 20.1 20.4   

60+ 13.5 13.5 13.3 14.2 14.4 14.7   

14+ 19.7 18.5 15.8 20.5 18.2 17.1#   

18+ 20.6 19.6 16.7 21.5 19.1 18.0#   

Additional age groups        

12 17 *4.6 n.p. **1.1 4.2 2.6 *1.3   

18 24 32.5 21.3 15.2 31.0 21.3 18.5   

25 34 21.5 19.7 14.1 24.2 20.0 17.6#   

35 44 24.1 25.2 19.0 20.6 20.6 19.7   

45 54 20.7 18.9 20.7 20.4 20.4 20.5   

55 64 17.7 21.5 21.4 20.1 20.1 19.8   

65 74 14.1 15.8 13.6 16.6 16.6 15.9   

75+ 7.7 *9.3 7.7 8.3 8.3 9.0   

12+ 18.9 18.0 15.4 17.6 17.6 16.6#   

# Statistically significant change between 2013 and 2016. 
* Estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution. 
** Estimate has a high level of sampling error (relative standard error of 51% to 90%), meaning that it is unsuitable for most 
uses. 
(a) Not consumed alcohol in the previous 12 months. 
(b) On average, had no more than 2 standard drinks per day. 
(c) On average, had more than 2 standard drinks per day. 
(d) age-standardised percentage 
Note: The calculation of alcohol risk was updated in 2013.  Abstainers  no longer equate to  never  and  ex-drinkers  combined 
because the calculation now excludes drinkers who did not indicate the quantity of alcohol they consumed. Trend data will not 
match data presented in previous reports. Refer to technical notes for further details. 
Source: NDSHS 2016 [59] 

 



 
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Table 59: Proportion of risky alcohol consumption, people aged 14 years or older, by Primary 
Health Networks, South Australia, 2016 

 Proportion of alcohol consumption 

 

Abstainers/ex-
drinkers

(a)
 

Lifetime 
risk: 

Lowrisk
(b)

 

Lifetime 
risk: 

Risky
(c)

 

Single 
occasion: 

Low 
risk

(d)
 

Single 
occasion: At 
least yearly 

but not 
monthly

(e)
 

Single 
occasion: At 

least 
monthly

(f)
 

SA 

Adelaide 22.3 63.3 14.4 40.2 14.1 23.4 

Country 
SA 

19.6 60.8 19.6 40.8 8.8 30.7 

(a) Not consumed alcohol in the previous 12 months. 
(b) On average, had no more than 2 standard drinks per day. 
(c) On average, had more than 2 standard drinks per day. 
(d) Never had more than 4 standard drinks on any occasion. 
(e) Had more than 4 standard drinks at least once a year but not as often as monthly. 
(f) Had more than 4 standard drinks at least once a month. 
Note: 1. The calculation of alcohol risk was updated in 2013.  Abstainers  no longer equate to  never  and  ex-drinkers  
combined because the calculation now excludes drinkers who did not indicate the quantity of alcohol they consumed. Trend 
data will not match data presented in previous reports. Refer to technical notes for further details. 
Source: NDSHS 2016 [59] 

 

Measure: Average age of initiation of alcohol consumption (self reported by people 14-24 

years) 

? The average age at which young people aged 14 24 first tried alcohol has steadily risen since 

1998 from 14.4 to 16.1 in 2016.  The average age of initiation was similar for males and females 

aged 14 24, and between 2013 and 2016, increased for both sexes from 15.7 to 16.2 for males 

and from 15.6 to 16.0 for females. Of all drinkers aged 14 or older, the age at which they first 

tried alcohol significantly increased in 2016 to 17.3 (from 17.2 in 2013). [59] 

 

Table 60: Age of initiation, recent drinkers (a) and ex drinkers (b) aged 14 24 years, 1995 to 
2016 

Sex 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 

Males 14.5 14.2 14.5 14.7 14.9 15.2 15.7 16.2# 

Females 15.2 14.7 14.8 15.0 15.1 15.3 15.6 16.0# 

Persons 14.8 14.4 14.7 14.8 15.0 15.2 15.7 16.1# 

# Statistically significant change between 2013 and 2016. 
(a) Consumed at least a full serve of alcohol in the previous 12 months. 
(b) Consumed at least a full serve of alcohol, but not in the previous 12 months. 
Source: NDSHS 2016 [59] 
 

  



 
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Indicator: Illicit drug use 

Measure: Proportion of South Australians (14 years old+) reporting use of illicit drugs in the 

last 12 months 

? About 15.9% of South Australians aged 14 years or over reported any illicit drug use in the last 

12 months in 2016 survey, slightly higher than the national average of 15.5%.  

 

Table 61: Proportion of South Australians (14 years old+) reporting use of any illicit drugs* in 
the last 12 months, by gender 2010 to 2016 

 Proportion Age-standardised 
proportion 

 
SA Australia SA Australia 

Sex 2010 2013 2016 2010 2013 2016 2016 2016 

Males 16.4 18.3 19.0 17.0 18.1 18.3 18.7 18.0 

Females 13.5 13.2 12.7 12.3 12.0 13.0 13.2 13.1 

Persons 14.9 15.7 15.7 14.7 15.0 15.6 15.9 15.5 

* Used at least 1 of 16 illicit drugs in 2016 - the number and type of illicit drug used varied between 2010 and 2016. 
Source: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: State and territory chapter. Supplementary data tables [59] 

 

Measure: Quantity of illicit drugs detected in South Australian wastewater (by type) across a 7 

day period 

The Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission used wastewater data collected between August 

2016 and August 2017 to estimate the annual weight of methylamphetamine, MDMA, cocaine and 

heroin consumed in each Australian state and territory.[60] 

? Methylamphetamine is the most consumed illicit drug in all states and territories, including South 

Australia. 

? There was variation between jurisdictions in consumption across the four drug types. By 

expressing annual consumption estimates derived from the program as a proportion of the total 

weight of four drugs in each state and territory, South Australia had the second highest 

proportion of Methylamphetamine consumption. 

 

Table 62: Estimated annual state and territory methyl amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA and 
heroin consumption (based on NWDMP data for August 2016 to August 2017) 

State / 
territory 

Estimated drug consumption (kilograms per annum) 

Methylamphetamine  Cocaine  MDMA  Heroin  Total 

ACT 80.4 67.8 28.9 16.1 193.2 

NSW 2,298.40 1,814.60 471.9 239.9 4,824.80 

NT 65.5 19.5 38.2 1.1 124.3 

Qld 1,277.90 323.8 223.3 75.7 1,900.70 

SA 1,005.30 108.8 58.7 38.6 1,211.40 

Tas 92 15.5 32.1 2.1 141.7 

Vic 2,039.20 681.5 326.5 348.8 3,396.00 

WA 1,528.30 43.8 101.3 42.5 1,715.90 

National 8,387 3,075 1,280 765   

Source: National Waterwater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 5, August 2018 [60]  
(https://www.acic.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3726/f/nwdmp5.pdf?v=1538721816) 



 
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Table 63: Estimated annual methyl amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA and heroin consumption, as 
a proportion of the total weight consumed per state and territory. 

State / 
territory 

Estimated drug consumption (proportion of 
state/territory total consumption) 

Methylamphetamine  Cocaine  MDMA  Heroin  

ACT 41.6 35.1 15.0 8.3 

NSW 47.6 37.6 9.8 5.0 

NT 52.7 15.7 30.7 0.9 

Qld 67.2 17.0 11.7 4.0 

SA 83.0 9.0 4.8 3.2 

Tas 64.9 10.9 22.7 1.5 

Vic 60.0 20.1 9.6 10.3 

WA 89.1 2.5 5.9 2.5 
Source: National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 5, August 2018 [60]  
(https://www.acic.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3726/f/nwdmp5.pdf?v=1538721816) 

 

Measure: Average age of initiation of any illicit drug (self reported by people 14-29 years) 

The average age at which people aged 14 or older used their first illicit drug has fluctuated between 

18.9 and 19.8 since 1995. However in 2016, the age at which people first tried an illicit drug was 

older, increasing (slightly but significantly) from 19.4 in 2013 to 19.8 in 2016 and was the oldest 

average age since 1995. [59] More specifically:  

? Users tend to be older when they first use pharmaceutical drugs than other illicit drugs: 25.3 for 

pharmaceuticals compared with 18.9 for other illicit drugs (excluding pharmaceuticals)  

? Average age of first use rose for cannabis, meth/amphetamines and hallucinogens with all these 

drugs showing an older age of first use in 2016.  

? Among people aged 14 29, the age of initiation into illicit drug use remained stable at about 16.7 

years. More specifically, the age at which people first used cannabis rose from 16.9 years in 

2013 to 17.3 years in 2016 but a younger average age of first use was reported by heroin and 

steroid users; however, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the wide margin 

of error. [59] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  110 

Table 64: Average age of initiation
(a)

 of lifetime drug use, people aged 14 and over, 1995 to 
2016 

Drug/behaviour 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 

Illicit drugs (excluding pharmaceuticals) 

Marijuana/cannabis 19.1 18.7 18.5 18.7 18.8 18.5 18.5 18.7# 

Ecstasy
(b)

 22.7 22.7 21.9 22.8 22.6 22.2 21.7 21.7 

Meth/amphetamine
(c)

 20.2 19.9 20.4 20.8 20.9 20.9 21.6 22.1# 

Cocaine 21.1 22.3 22.6 23.5 23.1 23.3 23.5 23.9 

Hallucinogens 19.1 18.8 19.1 19.5 19.6 19.8 20.0 20.4# 

Inhalants 16.1 17.5 17.6 18.6 19.3 19.5 20.3 20.3 

Heroin 20.6 21.5 20.7 21.2 21.9 21.4 21.6 22.0 

Ketamine n.a. n.a. n.a. 23.7 24.0 23.2 23.9 24.5 

GHB n.a. n.a. n.a. 23.7 24.6 23.9 23.7 24.7 

Injected drugs n.a. 20.7 20.2 21.7 21.3 21.1 21.8 22.2 

Any illicit
(d)

excluding 
pharmaceuticals 

19.0 18.6 18.5 18.2 18.8 18.6 18.6 18.9# 

Misuse of pharmaceuticals 

Pain-
killers/analgesics/opioids 

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 23.1 

Tranquillisers/sleeping 
pills

(c)
 

23.8 23.4 22.8 25.2 25.7 27.0 30.3 31.4 

Steroids
(c)

 18.7 21.6 22.5 25.2 23.9 22.9 `26.0 ``30.2# 

Methadone
(c)

or 
Buprenorphine

(e)
 

n.a. 21.6 21.8 24.8 23.3 23.6 `24.8 `23.8 

Misuse of 
pharmaceuticals

(c)(f)
 

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 25.3 

Illicit use of any drug 

Any illicit
(g)

 18.9 18.8 18.6 19.4 19.1 19.0 19.4 19.8# 

` The margin of error (width of a 95% confidence interval) was between 1.5 and 2.5 years and should be used with caution. 
`` The margin of error (width of a 95% confidence interval) was between 2.5 and 3 years, meaning that it is unsuitable for most 
uses. 
# Statistically significant change between 2013 and 2016. 
(a) Age first tried/used drug. 
(b) Included 'designer drugs' before 2004. 
(c) For non-medical purposes. 
(d) Illicit use of at least 1 of 12 classes of drugs (excluding pharmaceuticals) in the previous 12 months in 2016. The number 
and type of illicit drugs used has changed over time. 
(e) Did not include buprenorphine before 2007. 
(f) Prior to 2016, this referred to age pain-killers/analgesics were first used. In 2016 this refers to age at which pain-
killers/analgesics and opioids were first used. 
(g) Illicit use of at least 1 of 16 classes of drugs in 2016. The number and type of illicit drugs used has changed over time. 
Note: In 2016, pain-killer/analgesics and opioids sections were combined into one section and references and questions about 
use of non-opioid over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as paracetamol and aspirin were removed. 
The changes to the 2016 survey has resulted in a break in the time-series for pain-killers and opiates and also for the overall 
misuse of pharmaceuticals. As the data are no longer comparable, significance testing was not undertaken between 2013 and 
2016 for 'pain-killers/analgesics and opioids' or misuse of any pharmaceutical. 
Source: NDSHS 2016 [59] 

 

 

 

 



 
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Table 65: Average age of initiation
(a)

of lifetime drug use, people aged 14-29 years, 2001 to 2016  

Drug/behaviour 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 

Illicit drugs (excluding pharmaceuticals) 

Marijuana/cannabis 16.5 16.1 16.1 16.4 16.9 17.3# 

Ecstasy
(b)

 20.4 19.6 19.2 18.8 18.8 18.7 

Meth/amphetamine
(c)

 19.3 18.9 18.8 18.6 19.4 19.3 

Cocaine 21.5 20.2 20.4 20.5 20.5 20.5 

Hallucinogens 18.5 17.8 18.3 19.0 19.1 19.5 

Inhalants 17.1 16.8 n.p. 16.8 17.6 17.2 

Heroin n.p. 19.4 18.7 18.9 `19.1 `17.0# 

Ketamine n.a. 20.4 20.5 20.1 20.5 20.1 

GHB n.a. 20.7 20.8 20.6 20.5 20.1 

Injected drugs ``23.2 18.4 18.2 18.9 19.3 `20.4 

Any illicit
(d)

excluding 
pharmaceuticals 

16.6 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.9 17.1 

Misuse of pharmaceuticals 

Pain-
killers/analgesics/opioids 

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 15.8 

Tranquillisers/sleeping 
pills

(c)
 

19.6 19.4 19.6 19.5 19.9 19.4 

Steroids
(c)

 n.p. 19.8 `19.2 `21.7 22.6 20.4# 

Methadone
(c)

or 
Buprenorphine

(e)
 

n.p. 18.0 18.9 20.7 20.6 19.2 

Misuse of 
pharmaceuticals

(c)(f)
 

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 16.7 

Illicit use of any drug 

Any illicit
(g)

 16.8 15.9 16.1 16.2 16.6 16.7 

` The margin of error (width of a 95% confidence interval) was between 1.5 and 2.5 years and should be used with caution. 
`` The margin of error (width of a 95% confidence interval) was between 2.5 and 3 years, meaning that it is unsuitable for most 
uses. 
# Statistically significant change between 2013 and 2016. 
(a) Age first tried/used drug. 
(b) Included 'designer drugs' before 2004. 
(c) For non-medical purposes. 
(d) Illicit use of at least 1 of 12 classes of drugs (excluding pharmaceuticals) in the previous 12 months in 2016. The number 
and type of illicit drugs used has changed over time. 
(e) Did not include buprenorphine before 2007. 
(f) Prior to 2016, this referred to age pain-killers/analgesics were first used. In 2016 this refers to age at which pain-
killers/analgesics and opioids were first used. 
(g) Illicit use of at least 1 of 16 classes of drugs in 2016. The number and type of illicit drugs used has changed over time. 
Note: In 2016, pain-killer/analgesics and opioids sections were combined into one section and references and questions about 
use of non-opioid over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as paracetamol and aspirin were removed. 
The changes to the 2016 survey has resulted in a break in the time-series for pain-killers and opiates and also for the overall 
misuse of pharmaceuticals. As the data are no longer comparable, significance testing was not undertaken between 2013 and 
2016 for 'pain-killers/analgesics and opioids' or misuse of any pharmaceutical. 
Source: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016 [59] 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  112 

Measure: Proportion of South Australians reporting used of any illicit drug in the last 12 

months, by age groups (14-29 years, 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 50-49 years, 50-59 years, 60 

years+) 

? The age group of 20-29 had highest proportion of people reported using illicit drug in the last 12 

month in 2016 survey (23.9%); lower than the national average of 28.2%.   

 

Table 66: Proportion of recent illicit use of any drug, South Australians &amp; Australians, aged 14 
year or older, 2010, 2013 &amp; 2016 

 
SA Australia 

Age group 
(years) 2010 2013 2016 2010 2013 2016 

14 19 *22.5 *18.6 21.5 18.2 17.6 15.9 

20 29 28.1 28.6 23.9 27.5 27.3 28.2 

30 39 20.6 16.6 17.4 18.8 17.6 18.1 

40 49 12.5 17.7 20.9 12.8 13.6 16.2# 

50 59 9.0 13.3 14.7 8.8 11.1 11.7 

60+ 5.4 6.0 6.0 5.2 6.4 6.9 

14+ 14.9 15.7 15.7 14.7 15.0 15.6 

18+ 14.6 15.7 16.0 14.7 15.1 15.9 

* Estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution. 
# Statistically significant change between 2013 and 2016. 
Source: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016 (Table 7.17) 

 

  



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  113 

Indicator: Discretionary food/drink consumption 

Measure: Mean weekly frequency of fast food consumption by adults  self reported 

? 14.0% of South Australian adults consumed fast food once per week in 2016-18, and 5.8% 

consumed more than once per week.  

? The mean number of fast food consumption per week was 0.4 among South Australian adults.  

 

Table 67: Frequency of fast food consumption, South Australia adults aged 18 years and over, 
July 2016   March 2018 

  n % (95% CI) 

Never 3046 31.2 (30.3-32.2) 

Rarely (less than once per month) 2228 22.8 (22.0-23.7) 

Less than once per week 2543 26.1 (25.2-27.0) 

Once per week 1367 14.0 (13.3-14.7) 

More than once per week 568 5.8 (5.4-6.3) 

Total 9752 100.0 
 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Measure: Mean weekly frequency of fast food consumption by children (1-17 years old)   
parent report 

? 22.7% of South Australian children consumed fast food once per week in 2016-18, and 5.6% 

consumed more than once per week.  

? The mean number of fast food consumption per week was 0.5 among South Australian children. 

? The proportion of weekly fast food consumption among South Australian children decreased 

about 20% in 2016-18 when compared to 2002-03. 

 

Table 68: Frequency of fast food consumption, South Australia children aged 1-17 years, July 
2016   March 2018 

  n % (95% CI) 

Never 445 16.5 (15.1-17.9) 

Rarely (less than once per month) 444 16.5 (15.1-17.9) 

Less than once per week 1046 38.8 (36.9-40.6) 

Once per week 612 22.7 (21.1-24.3) 

More than once per week 152 5.6 (4.8-6.5) 

Total 2699 100.0 
 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
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Figure 41: Mean of weekly frequency of fast food consumption, South Australia, July 2016   
March 2018 

 
Note: adults   18 years and over; children: 1-17 years old. 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Figure 42: Proportion of weekly frequency of fast food consumption, South Australia, July 
2016   March 2018 

 
Note: adults   18 years and over; children: 1-17 years old. 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  115 

Table 69: Fast food consumption, South Australians aged 18 years and over, July 2016   March 2018 

 
% consuming at least once per week Mean serves per week 

 Adults (18 years and 
over) n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD Median (IQR) 

All 1935/9752 19.8 (19.1-20.6) 9752 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.7 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Male 1123/4718 23.8 (22.6-25.0) 4718 0.5  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.8 0.2 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Female 813/5034 16.1 (15.2-17.2) 5034 0.3  (0.0 - 5.0)  0.6 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

         
Location 

Metro 1443/7005 20.6 (19.7-21.6) 7005 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.7 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Rural 492/2747 17.9 (16.5-19.4) 2747 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.7 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

         
Age 

18-29 700/1969 35.5 (33.5-37.7) 1969 0.7  (0.0 - 7.0)  1.0 0.5 (0.0 - 1.0)  

30-49 751/3094 24.3 (22.8-25.8) 3094 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.6 0.2 (0.0 - 0.5)  

50-69 416/3217 12.9 (11.8-14.1) 3217 0.2  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.5 0.0 (0.0 - 0.2)  

70 years and over 69/1473 4.7 (3.7-5.9) 1473 0.1  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.3 0.0 (0.0 - 0.0)  

         
SEIFA 

Lowest 452/1976 22.9 (21.1-24.8) 1976 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.8 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Lowest 392/1853 21.2 (19.3-23.1) 1853 0.4  (0.0 - 5.0)  0.7 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Middle 396/1931 20.5 (18.8-22.4) 1931 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.7 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

High 373/1895 19.7 (17.9-21.5) 1895 0.4  (0.0 - 7.0)  0.7 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Highest 323/2073 15.6 (14.1-17.2) 2073 0.3  (0.0 - 6.0)  0.5 0.0 (0.0 - 0.5)  
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

  



 
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Table 70: Fast food consumption, South Australians aged 1-17 years, July 2016   March 2018 

 
% consuming at least once per week Mean serves per week 

 Children (1 to 17 
years) n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD Median (IQR) 

All 764/2699 28.3 (26.6-30.0) 2699 0.5  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.6 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

Male 424/1418 29.9 (27.6-32.3) 1418 0.5  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.6 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

Female 339/1281 26.5 (24.1-28.9) 1281 0.4  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.5 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

         

Location 

Metro 563/1927 29.2 (27.2-31.3) 1927 0.5  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.6 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

Rural 201/772 26.0 (23.0-29.2) 772 0.4  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.5 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

         
Age 

2 to 4 175/590 29.7 (26.1-33.4) 590 0.4  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.5 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

5 to 9 197/722 27.3 (24.1-30.6) 722 0.5  (0.0 - 2.0)  0.5 0.5 (0.0 - 1.0)  

10 to 14 183/720 25.4 (22.3-28.7) 720 0.5  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.6 0.2 (0.0 - 1.0)  

15 to 17 209/667 31.3 (27.9-34.9) 667 0.6  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.6 0.5 (0.0 - 1.0)  

         
SEIFA 

Lowest 172/461 37.3 (33.0-41.8) 461 0.6  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.7 0.5 (0.0 - 1.0)  

Lowest 182/514 35.3 (31.4-39.6) 514 0.6  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.6 0.5 (0.2 - 1.0)  

Middle 126/519 24.3 (20.7-28.1) 519 0.4  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.5 0.2 (0.0 - 0.5)  

High 117/515 22.7 (19.3-26.5) 515 0.4  (0.0 - 2.0)  0.5 0.2 (0.0 - 0.5)  

Highest 168/683 24.5 (21.5-27.9) 683 0.4  (0.0 - 3.0)  0.5 0.2 (0.0 - 0.7)  
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 



 
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Sport or Soft drink consumption 

Measure: Proportion of adults who consume 0.25 litres or more soft drink or sports drinks per 

day 

? 13.0% of South Australian adults consumed 0.25 litres or more soft drink per day in 2016-18. 

? 0.8% of South Australian adults consumed sport drink in 2016-18. 

 
Table 71: Soft drink consumption pattern, South Australians aged 18 years and above, July 
2016   March 2018 

Adults (18+ years) n % (95% CI) 

None 8378 85.9 (85.2-86.6) 

Less than 250ml 91 0.9 (0.8-1.1) 

250 to 499ml 677 6.9 (6.5-7.5) 

500 to 749ml 257 2.6 (2.3-3.0) 

750 to 999ml 126 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 

&gt;=1000ml 223 2.3 (2.0-2.6) 

Total 9751 100.0 
 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Table 72: Sport drink consumption pattern, South Australians aged 18 years and above, July 
2016   March 2018 

Adults (18+ years) n % (95% CI) 

None 9681 99.2 (99.0-99.4) 

Less than 250ml 0 0.0  

250 to 499ml 50 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 

?500 27 0.3 (0.2-0.4) 

Total 9758 100.0   
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Measure: Proportion of children (1-17 years old) by daily soft drink or sports drink 

consumption (mL)   parent report 

? 5.3% of South Australian children consumed 0.25 litres or more soft drink per day in 2016-18. 

? 0.2% of South Australian children consumed sport drink in 2016-18. 

 
Table 73: Soft drink consumption pattern, South Australians aged 1-17 years, July 2016   
March 2018 

  n % (95% CI) 

None 2527 93.6 (92.7-94.5) 

Less than 250ml 27 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 

250 to 499ml 92 3.4 (2.8-4.1) 

500 to 749ml 27 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 

750 to 999ml 3 0.1 (0.0-0.3) 

&gt;=1000ml 22 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 

Total 2699 100.0 
 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 



 
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Table 74: Sport drink consumption pattern, South Australians aged 1-17 years, July 2016   
March 2018 

Children (1-17 years) n % (95% CI) 

None 2693 99.8 (99.5-99.9) 

Less than 250ml 0 0.0 
 

250 to 499ml 0 0.0 
 

&gt;=500ml 6 0.2 (0.1-0.5) 

Total 2699 100.0 
 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Measure: Mean consumption (mL) of soft drinks and sports drinks per day, adults 

? The mean consumption of soft drink and sport drink was 562.6 ml and 542.7 ml among South 

Australian adults in 2016-17 and 2017-18 respectively. 

 

Figure 43: Soft drinks consumption, South Australian aged 18 years and over, March 2008   
March 2018 

 
Note: 2007/08 financial years only includes data from March 2008 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
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Measure: Mean quantity of soft drink and sports drink consumption by children (1-17 years 

old) per day   parent report 

? The mean consumption of soft drink and sport drink was 388.2 ml and 509.1 ml among South 

Australian children in 2016-17 and 2017-18 respectively. 

 

Figure 44: Soft drink consumption, South Australian aged 1-17 years, March 2008   March 
2018 

 
Note: 2007/08 financial years only includes data from March 2008 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 



 
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Table 75: Soft drink consumption, South Australians aged 18 years and over, July 2016   March 2018 

 
% consuming 250 ml or more soft drinks per day Mean soft drink consumption per day (ml)^ 

 Adults (18 years and 
over) n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD Median (IQR) 

All 1282/9751 13.2 (12.5-13.8) 1373 554.2  (125.0 - 3000.0)  415.7 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

Male 775/4712 16.4 (15.4-17.5) 821 563.8  (125.0 - 3000.0)  409.7 375.0 (250.0 - 700.0)  

Female 508/5039 10.1 (9.3-10.9) 552 540.1  (125.0 - 3000.0)  424.5 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

         
Location 

Metro 870/6998 12.4 (11.7-13.2) 937 563.2  (125.0 - 3000.0)  433.5 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

Rural 412/2753 15.0 (13.7-16.3) 436 535.1  (125.0 - 3000.0)  374.4 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

         
Age 

18-29 197/1972 10.0 (8.7-11.4) 207 529.2  (125.0 - 2000.0)  381.5 375.0 (250.0 - 700.0)  

30-49 519/3097 16.7 (15.5-18.1) 553 581.1  (125.0 - 2500.0)  456.1 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

50-69 443/3210 13.8 (12.6-15.0) 465 568.1  (125.0 - 3000.0)  399.5 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

70 years and over 124/1472 8.4 (7.1-9.9) 147 444.8  (125.0 - 3000.0)  327.7 375.0 (250.0 - 500.0)  

         
SEIFA 

Lowest 341/1976 17.3 (15.6-19.0) 352 647.1  (125.0 - 2500.0)  477.7 500.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

Lowest 310/1849 16.8 (15.1-18.5) 336 556.8  (125.0 - 3000.0)  425.6 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

Middle 238/1931 12.3 (10.9-13.8) 251 520.3  (125.0 - 3000.0)  411.7 375.0 (250.0 - 600.0)  

High 193/1897 10.2 (8.9-11.6) 217 495.8  (125.0 - 3000.0)  320.8 375.0 (250.0 - 700.0)  

Highest 199/2073 9.6 (8.4-10.9) 210 506.8  (125.0 - 2500.0)  355.9 375.0 (250.0 - 600.0)  
Note: Mean is applicable only for those who consumed any soft drinks (none drinkers = 8378 excluded). 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System.  



 
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Table 76: Soft drink consumption, South Australians aged 1-17 years, July 2016   March 2018 

 
% consuming 250ml or more soft drinks per day Mean soft drink consumption per day (ml) 

 Children (1 to 17 
years) n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD Median (IQR) 

All 144/2699 5.3 (4.5-6.2) 171 426.8  (125.0 - 1500.0)  328.6 300.0 (250.0 - 500.0)  

Male 103/1418 7.3 (6.0-8.7) 115 483.3  (125.0 - 1500.0)  370.7 375.0 (250.0 - 500.0)  

Female 41/1280 3.2 (2.3-4.3) 57 313.0  (125.0 - 1000.0)  174.5 250.0 (200.0 - 375.0)  

         
Location 

Metro 105/1928 5.5 (4.5-6.5) 131 399.0  (125.0 - 1500.0)  315.6 250.0 (250.0 - 500.0)  

Rural 39/771 5.1 (3.7-6.8) 41 516.1  (125.0 - 1200.0)  357.0 375.0 (250.0 - 750.0)  

         
Age 

1 to 4 19/590 3.2 (2.0-4.9) 38 224.9  (125.0 - 500.0)  130.3 125.0 (125.0 - 250.0)  

5 to 9 11/721 1.6 (0.8-2.6) 14 533.6  (125.0 - 1000.0)  399.3 250.0 (250.0 - 1000.0)  

10 to 14 41/720 5.7 (4.2-7.6) 46 324.1  (125.0 - 1200.0)  190.1 250.0 (250.0 - 375.0)  

15 to 17 73/667 10.9 (8.7-13.5) 73 575.8  (250.0 - 1500.0)  376.1 400.0 (375.0 - 600.0)  

         
SEIFA 

Lowest 40/459 8.7 (6.4-11.6) 46 618.8  (125.0 - 1500.0)  471.3 375.0 (250.0 - 1000.0)  

Lowest 33/516 6.4 (4.5-8.8) 42 433.7  (125.0 - 1000.0)  291.9 375.0 (250.0 - 500.0)  

Middle 30/519 5.8 (4.0-8.0) 30 364.1  (250.0 - 1200.0)  201.3 250.0 (250.0 - 375.0)  

High 21/515 4.0 (2.6-6.1) 22 347.4  (125.0 - 500.0)  115.5 375.0 (250.0 - 500.0)  

Highest 20/683 2.9 (1.9-4.4) 30 246.4  (125.0 - 500.0)  122.9 250.0 (125.0 - 250.0)  
Note: Mean is applicable only for those who consumed any soft drinks (none drinkers = 2527 excluded). 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 



 
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Indicator: Sedentary behaviours 

Measure: Proportion of children meeting screen-based activity recommendations 

? 22.6% of South Australian children aged 5-15 years reported having more than 2 hours of screen 

time per day in 2016-18. 

? Higher proportion of boys spent more than 2 hours screen time than girls.  

 

Table 77: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-15 years reporting more than 2 hours 
of screen time per day, July 2016   March 2018 

 
n/N % 95% CI 

Children (5 to 15 years) 
   

All 365/1619 22.6 (20.6-24.6) 

Male 234/888 26.4 (23.5-29.3) 

Female 131/731 17.9 (15.3-20.8) 

    
Location 

Metro 268/1202 22.3 (20.0-24.7) 

Rural 97/417 23.3 (19.4-27.5) 

    
Age 

5 to 9 112/710 15.8 (13.2-18.6) 

10 to 15 253/909 27.8 (25.0-30.8) 

    
SEIFA 

   
Lowest 85/284 30.1 (24.8-35.4) 

Lowest 124/273 45.6 (39.6-51.3) 

Middle 57/304 18.8 (14.7-23.4) 

High 45/322 14.0 (10.5-18.1) 

Highest 52/432 12.0 (9.2-15.4) 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Table 78: Proportion of children aged 5-15 years by time spent in screen based activities 
(n=1619), South Australia, July 2016   March 2018 

Hours per day n % (95% CI) 

0 hours 30 1.8 (1.3-2.6) 

More than 0 to 0.5 hours 244 15.1 (13.4-16.9) 

More than 0.5 hours to 1 hour 442 27.3 (25.2-29.5) 

More than 1 hour to 1.5 hours 212 13.1 (11.5-14.8) 

More than 1.5 hour to 2 hours 327 20.2 (18.3-22.2) 

More than 2 hours 365 22.6 (20.6-24.6) 

Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 



 
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Figure 45: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-15 years reporting more than 2 
hours of screen time per day, 2002-03 to 2017-18 

 
2007/08 Financial years only includes data from March 2008 
Data source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Measure: Median time spent by adults sitting per day   compare with future evidence-based 
guidelines in the area 

In 2011-12, adults spent an average of 33 minutes per day doing physical activity, yet the distribution 

was highly skewed with 60% of adults doing less than 30 minutes, and fewer than 20% doing an hour 

or more per day on average. In contrast, sedentary leisure occupied just over 4 hours a day on 

average, with almost 30% of the adult population reporting more than 5 hours of sedentary leisure 

activity each day. [61]  

Sedentary behaviour was defined as sitting or lying down for various activities in the last week. This 

included time spent sitting at work and time spent sitting or lying down for leisure activities. Overall, in 

2011-12, sedentary activity occupied, on average, 39 hours per week for adults, of which about 10 

hours was at work and 29 hours was in leisure (including transport).[61] 

Table 79: Sedentary activity, South Australians aged 18 years and above, 2014-15 

 
Median Minutes 

 
Male Female Total 

Weighted median of Total minutes usual spent sit watch tv or 
using computer before and after work on usual 
workday (Minutes) 120 120 120 

Weighted median of Total minutes spent sitting at leisure on 
a usual work/week day (Minutes) 240 240 240 

Weighted median of Total minutes spent sitting at work on a 
usual day (Minutes) 137.1 300 180 

Weighted median of Total minutes spent sitting in other 
leisure activities on a usual work - week day (Minutes) 60 120 90 

Weighted median of Total minutes spent sitting while 
watching tv or using a computer on a usual week 
day  (Minutes) 222.8 180 180 

Source: National Health Survey, 2014-15 (extract from ABS TableBuilder 
http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/tablebuilder) [63] 

 




 
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Indicator: Sun exposure 

Measure: Sunburn - Proportion South Australian adults (18+ years), adolescents (12-17 years) 

and children (0-11 years) who have been sunburnt in the last 12 months 

Source: Data collection commencing in SAPHS and will be available for 2018-20 report 

NDA 

 

Measure: Sun protection - Proportion of South Australian adults (18+ years), adolescents (12-

17 years) and children (0-11 years) who usually use at least 3 to 5 types of sun protection 

when outside in Summer 

Source: Data collection commencing in SAPHS and will be available for 2018-20 report 

NDA 

 

  



 
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Protective factors 

Indicator: Immunisation 

Measure: Proportion of South Australian children fully immunised at 60-&lt;=63 months of age 

? The percentage of children fully immunised in South Australia aged 12 months to 63 months was 

93.1% and 93.8% in 2016 and 2017 (calendar year) respectively. These rates are slight lower 

than the national coverage rates, which was 93.2% in 2016 and 94.0% in 2017. [64] 

 

Table 80: Proportion of South Australian children fully immunised at age 12 months to 63 
months by PHN, 2016 &amp; 2017 

PHN 2016 2017 

Adelaide 93.7 93.8 

Country SA 94.0 93.5 
Annualised 1Jan16-31 Dec16 and 1Jan17-31 Dec17 
Source: Childhood immunisation coverage data (PHN and SA3) [64] 

 

Table 81: Percentage of children fully immunised in South Australia aged 12 months to 63 
months, 2010-2017 

 State 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 

1 year old (12 
to less than 15 
months) 

SA 94.3 93.4 92.4 90.4 90.6 92.0 91.8 91.3 

Australia 94.3 93.4 92.4 90.4 90.6 92.0 91.8 91.3 

2 year old (24 
to less than 27 
months) 

SA 90.2 91.8 88.3 90.6 92.4 92.5 92.7 92.3 

Australia 90.5 91.4 89.3 91.2 92.2 92.6 92.7 92.5 

5 year old (60 
to less than 63 
months) 

SA 93.8 93.1 91.3 91.0 91.3 89.1 87.2 85.6 

Australia 94.0 93.2 92.6 92.1 91.9 90.8 89.5 88.0 

Source: Childhood immunisation coverage: historical coverage data tables for all children [65] 

 

Table 82: South Australian annual coverage data for all children by local government area, 
2016 &amp; 2017 

 2016 2017 

Local Government Area 12 to &lt;15 
months 

24 to &lt;27 
months 

60 to &lt;63 
months 

12 to &lt;15 
months 

24 to &lt;27 
months 

60 to 
&lt;63 
months 

Adelaide (C) 91.2 81.3 83.6 90.2 80.5 81.4 

Adelaide Hills (DC) 91.6 90.3 91.7 91.1 88.4 87.1 

Alexandrina (DC) 94.0 92.2 95.0 94.1 91.7 94.1 

Barossa (DC) 94.9 94.5 93.3 94.5 92.5 94.1 

Barunga West (DC) 87.5 94.7 89.5 100.0 82.6 91.3 

Berri and Barmera (DC) 97.9 95.0 94.2 95.9 96.9 96.0 

Burnside (C) 90.8 92.7 91.4 94.0 88.3 90.4 

Campbelltown (C) 91.0 91.8 91.7 92.0 89.9 93.5 

Ceduna (DC) 92.7 90.3 95.2 96.8 89.6 93.8 

Charles Sturt (C) 92.0 89.4 92.2 94.1 86.9 92.6 



 
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Clare and Gilbert Valleys (DC) 94.6 92.6 93.3 97.8 94.7 98.3 

Cleve (DC) 95.0 95.8 100.0 100.0 79.2 97.0 

Coober Pedy (DC) 87.5 75.0 100.0 88.5 84.6 95.0 

Copper Coast (DC) 97.2 94.7 96.2 99.3 89.9 93.6 

Elliston (DC) 100.0 82.4 92.3 78.6 100.0 93.8 

Flinders Ranges (DC) 100.0 92.3 86.7 88.9 100.0 81.8 

Franklin Harbour (DC) 100.0 92.9 100.0 90.0 86.7 91.7 

Gawler (T) 92.8 91.3 93.2 93.0 93.4 96.0 

Goyder (DC) 97.7 94.6 91.9 94.6 90.0 93.0 

Grant (DC) 92.9 98.3 96.0 96.6 89.3 97.4 

Holdfast Bay (C) 93.2 89.8 90.6 93.0 87.9 94.3 

Kangaroo Island (DC) 96.3 84.1 96.6 100.0 94.5 100.0 

Karoonda East Murray (DC) 100.0 100.0 * 100.0 100.0 91.7 

Kimba (DC) * 100.0 100.0 100.0 * 95.0 

Kingston (DC) 100.0 100.0 96.4 89.3 100.0 85.7 

Le Hunte (DC) 86.8 95.8 * NA NA NA 

Light (RegC) 91.2 89.9 93.4 97.1 91.5 95.1 

Lower Eyre Peninsula (DC) 94.9 95.1 95.3 93.1 86.7 93.6 

Loxton Waikerie (DC) 96.7 94.8 95.5 94.7 93.7 95.9 

Mallala (DC) 90.5 92.6 96.2 96.6 97.8 93.2 

Marion (C) 94.5 92.6 92.9 94.6 91.5 93.8 

Mid Murray (DC) 98.5 89.2 96.0 95.9 96.1 92.2 

Mitcham (C) 95.3 93.1 93.2 93.9 92.9 94.8 

Mount Barker (DC) 94.4 90.1 93.6 95.5 90.3 89.2 

Mount Gambier (C) 94.9 93.1 97.1 91.8 92.7 95.2 

Mount Remarkable (DC) 88.5 83.3 97.1 85.7 88.9 100.0 

Murray Bridge (RC) 91.1 91.6 93.8 91.9 91.2 94.4 

Naracoorte and Lucindale (DC) 94.3 96.6 93.2 95.6 97.6 94.5 

Northern Areas (DC) 98.1 98.3 100.0 98.1 92.6 100.0 

Norwood Payneham St Peters 
(C) 

89.0 89.7 91.9 94.5 87.4 93.9 

Onkaparinga (C) 93.5 91.9 92.2 93.7 90.3 94.0 

Peterborough (DC) 100.0 86.7 85.0 93.8 100.0 100.0 

Playford (C) 92.8 91.1 93.3 93.8 90.6 95.6 

Port Adelaide Enfield (C) 93.3 91.7 91.8 93.2 90.4 93.3 

Port Augusta (C) 94.4 92.4 96.5 91.1 91.4 96.4 

Port Lincoln (C) 94.2 91.9 95.6 93.6 90.1 93.6 

Port Pirie City and Dists (M) 94.4 92.2 90.8 95.5 91.4 95.6 



 
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Prospect (C) 93.0 91.4 91.3 94.0 91.5 91.8 

Renmark Paringa (DC) 99.0 93.5 96.0 97.6 97.8 95.0 

Robe (DC) 94.4 95.0 88.2 100.0 93.8 92.3 

Roxby Downs (M) 94.2 91.8 97.4 95.2 98.6 93.1 

Salisbury (C) 92.8 91.8 94.9 95.4 91.2 94.5 

Southern Mallee (DC) 91.7 93.8 92.0 100.0 93.3 85.0 

Streaky Bay (DC) 100.0 94.4 95.8 96.9 100.0 90.9 

Tatiara (DC) 100.0 94.4 97.6 95.5 92.4 97.7 

Tea Tree Gully (C) 94.9 93.8 94.5 95.6 92.6 94.4 

The Coorong (DC) 95.2 98.6 97.1 100.0 93.8 100.0 

Tumby Bay (DC) 96.0 96.9 94.4 100.0 91.7 93.1 

Unincorporated SA ) 93.3 93.2 85.7 93.8 85.7 91.2 

Unley (C) 92.9 91.8 90.4 95.4 90.5 93.5 

Victor Harbor (C) 90.7 88.4 92.5 96.7 82.4 93.8 

Wakefield (DC) 92.1 87.2 98.8 98.8 94.8 97.7 

Walkerville (M) 92.5 94.0 89.4 89.6 93.5 87.2 

Wattle Range (DC) 96.6 95.0 97.3 98.2 94.0 94.8 

West Torrens (C) 92.7 90.7 89.8 93.7 89.5 93.1 

Whyalla (C) 94.6 89.3 95.0 96.5 91.4 93.4 

Wudinna (DC) 93.3 90.9 96.6 94.4 88.2 100.0 

Yankalilla (DC) 86.5 86.4 91.1 92.7 88.2 83.0 

Yorke Peninsula (DC) 92.3 94.4 97.2 95.6 90.1 94.1 

South Australia  93.4 91.8 93.1 94.3 90.6 93.8 

*No data provided for privacy rules as less than 10 children in the age group 
C=City Council DC=Distric Council M=Municipal Council RC=Rural Council RecC=Reginal Council T=Town of 
Source: Childhood immunisation coverage data (PHN and SA3) [64] 

 

Measure: Proportion of Aboriginal South Australian children reported as fully immunised at 12 

&lt;=15 months; 24&lt;=27 months; and 60&lt;=63 months of age 

? The immunisation coverage rates Aboriginal children fully immunised at 5 year old in South 

Australia were 94.3% and 94.2% in 2016 and 2017 respectively, and were slightly lower than the 

national averages (95.2% in 2016 and 96.2% in 2017). [64] 

 

Table 83: South Australian annual coverage data for Aboriginal children by PHN, 2016 &amp; 2017 

 2016 2017 

PHN 12 to 
&lt;15 
months 

24 to 
&lt;27 
months 

60 to 
&lt;63 
months 

12 to 
&lt;15 
months 

24 to 
&lt;27 
months 

60 to 
&lt;63 
months 

Adelaide 91.7 85.5 91.3 89.4 87.2 93.1 

Country SA 93.8 87.7 97.3 91.3 87.1 96.4 
Annualised 1Jan16-31Dec16 and 1Jan17-31Dec17 
Source: Childhood immunisation coverage data (PHN and SA3) [64] 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  128 

Table 84: Percentage of Aboriginal children fully immunised in South Australia aged 12 
months to 63 months, 2010-2017 

 State 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 

1 year old (12 to 
less than 15 
months) 

SA 90.3 92.5 89.2 83.8 77.5 77.9 79.1 78.0 

Australia 92.2 91.2 88.7 87.0 85.6 85.4 85.0 84.8 

2 year old (24 to 
less than 27 
months) 

SA 87.6 87.5 84.5 84.6 86.6 86.9 87.6 91.1 

Australia 88.2 89.1 86.2 90.6 91.7 92.2 92.5 91.9 

5 year old (60 to 
less than 63 
months) 

SA 94.2 94.3 92.1 88.9 87.3 83.3 77.4 77.4 

Australia 96.2 95.2 93.9 93.2 93.1 89.8 85.8 83.6 

Source: Childhood immunisation coverage: historical coverage data tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children [66] 

 
Table 85: South Australian annual coverage data for Aboriginal children by local government 
area, 2016 &amp; 2017 

 2016 2017 

Local Government Area 12 to &lt;15 
months 

24 to &lt;27 
months 

60 to &lt;63 
months 

12 to &lt;15 
months 

24 to &lt;27 
months 

60 to &lt;63 
months 

Alexandrina (DC) 100.0 100.0 * * 92.3 * 

Berri and Barmera (DC) * 90.9 87.5 * 100.0 92.9 

Ceduna (DC) 94.1 81.3 95.0 96.8 89.3 94.7 

Charles Sturt (C) 84.3 79.3 90.0 86.7 75.0 88.5 

Coober Pedy (DC) * 81.8 100.0 NA NA NA 

Copper Coast (DC) 90.0 * 100.0 * 91.7 * 

Gawler (T) 81.3 80.0 100.0 100.0 92.3 * 

Marion (C) 85.0 95.2 77.3 83.3 71.4 85.7 

Mitcham (C) * * 100.0 * 92.3 * 

Mount Gambier (C) 94.4 92.3 100.0 94.4 100.0 100.0 

Murray Bridge (RC) 89.7 96.2 100.0 81.5 81.8 95.7 

Onkaparinga (C) 94.9 87.7 91.2 92.8 92.6 94.8 

Playford (C) 92.9 90.7 94.1 91.0 88.5 93.2 

Port Adelaide Enfield (C) 89.4 75.0 94.3 82.9 82.9 91.4 

Port Augusta (C) 92.4 91.4 97.7 86.8 85.0 96.2 

Port Lincoln (C) 90.9 84.6 97.4 87.5 77.4 97.0 

Port Pirie City and Dists (M) 84.6 87.0 87.5 95.2 81.0 100.0 

Renmark Paringa (DC) 100.0 * * NA NA NA 

Salisbury (C) 95.1 82.2 96.0 95.5 94.9 98.5 

Tea Tree Gully (C) 91.3 94.1 92.9 92.0 100.0 86.4 

The Coorong (DC) * 100.0 * NA NA NA 

Unincorporated SA ) 93.8 100.0 93.8 81.8 92.3 91.7 

West Torrens (C) 85.7 80.0 100.0 * 100.0 90.9 

Whyalla (C) 90.6 82.1 91.2 90.3 88.3 94.2 

Yorke Peninsula (DC) NA NA NA 91.7 * * 

South Australia  92.3 87.5 94.3 90.3 88.3 94.2 

*No data provided for privacy rules as less than 10 children in the age group 
C=City Council DC=District Council M=Municipal Council RC=Rural Council RecC=Reginal Council T=Town of 
Source: Childhood immunisation coverage data (PHN and SA3) [64] 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  129 

Measure: Immunisation coverage rates for 60&lt;=63 month olds in four of the ten lowest 

vaccination coverage SA3 areas relative to the baseline; area as advised by South Australia to 

the Commonwealth. 

NDA 

 

Measure: Proportion of children turning 15 years old who are immunised with HPV vaccine (by 

age and number of doses) 

? The HPV vaccination coverage rates at all three dose for children turning 15 years old in South 

Australia gradually increase from 2012 to 2016 for both males and females, and the level were 

similar as the national levels including 2016. [67]   

 

Table 86: HPV 3 dose vaccination coverage for children turning 15 years of age by doses, 
2012-2016 

Sex State Year Coverage Dose 
1 

Coverage Dose 2 Coverage 
Dose 3 

   % % % 

Female SA 2016 85.8 82.4 75.3% 

 National 2016 86.5 83.8 78.6% 

 SA 2015 84.4 81.3 74.3% 

 National 2015 86.4 83.7 78.0% 

 SA 2014 84.5 81.2 74.0% 

 National 2014 83.7 80.3 74.1% 

 SA 2013 84.1 80.8 72.9% 

 National 2013 82.1 78.4 71.7% 

 SA 2012 82.1 78.9 71.2% 

 National 2012 82.7 79.2 71.5% 

Male SA 2016 82.5 79.6 72.0% 

 National 2016 81.0 78.3 72.9% 

 SA 2015 81.0 77.5 69.0% 

 National 2015 77.8 74.7 67.2% 

 SA 2014 75.6 72.6 64.2% 

 National 2014 73.3 70.0 62.0% 
Source: National HPV register [67] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  130 

Indicator: Sexually transmitted infection and blood borne virus prevention 

Measure: Proportion of South Australian young people/secondary school students who give 

correct answers to questions on STI knowledge/relationship dynamics/negotiating condom 

use 

Note - No SA specific data. 

The Fifth National Survey of Secondary Students and Sexual Health was carried out in 2013 and 

involved over 2,000 Year 10, 11, and 12 students from the Government, Catholic and Independent 

school systems and from every jurisdiction in Australia.[68] The findings are as listed below. 

Knowledge:  

? HIV knowledge is relatively high.  

? STI knowledge remains poor; including knowledge about chlamydia.  

? Knowledge of the possible symptoms of STIs was somewhat better.  

? Hepatitis knowledge remains relatively poor.  

? HPV knowledge is very poor. In most cases more than half the sample reported being  unsure  

of correct answers to HPV knowledge questions.  

? Only 52% of young women reported having been vaccinated against HPV.  

? There were few gender differences in HIV knowledge; however young women demonstrated 

better knowledge compared with young men generally in terms of STIs, particularly for HPV. 

Sexual behaviour:  

? The proportion of students who had experienced sexual intercourse in the total sample was 34%. 

? The majority of the sample reported sexual attraction only to people of the opposite sex (83% of 

young men and 76% of young women). 

? The majority (59%) of sexually active students (those who answered  yes  to having either 

vaginal or anal sexual intercourse) reported using a condom the last time they had sex. 

? Of those sexually active students who reported that a condom was available the last time they 

had sex, 86% reported using it. 

 
Table 87: Secondary students giving correct answers to STI knowledge questions, Australia, 
2013 

 Males Females Total 

Knowledge item % % % 

1. Someone can have a STI without any obvious symptoms 83.9 91.3 88.5 

2. Chlamydia is a STI that affects only women 54.1 63.5 59.9 

3. Chlamydia can lead to sterility among women 49.7 60.3 56.3 

4. Once a person has caught genital herpes, then they will 
always have the virus 

42 49 56.3 

Source: The 5th National Survey of Australian Secondary Students and Sexual Health [68] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  131 

Table 88: Secondary students reported sexual attraction, Australia, 2013 

 Males Females Total 

Knowledge item % % % 

Only to people of the opposite sex 83.2 76 78.8 

People of both sexes 4.9 15.2 11.2 

Only to people of my own sex 7.9 4.1 5.6 

Not sure 40 4.7 4.4 

Source: The 5th National Survey of Australian Secondary Students and Sexual Health [68] 

 
Table 89: Secondary students reported sexual activities, Australia, 2013 

 Males Females Total 

Activity % % % 

Sex without a condom 23.6 24.3 24 

Sex with a condom 34.8 32.5 33.4 

Source: The 5th National Survey of Australian Secondary Students and Sexual Health [68] 

 

Measure: Number and proportion of people who inject drugs and who attend SA clean needle 

programs who reported any re-sue of someone else s used needle and syringe last month 

? The proportion of respondents reporting reuse of someone else s used needle and syringe in the 

last month prior to the survey was stable, ranging from 14 to 22% over period of 2013 to 2017 in 

South Australia and was 16% in 2017.  

 
Table 90: Number (percentage) of respondents by injecting behaviours in the last month and 
survey year, South Australia &amp; Australia, 2013-2017 

 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 

South Australia 

Number of injected last month 232 214 220 233 236 

Re-used someone else's used needles &amp; syringe last month (%)    

None 85 86 86 77 82 

Once 7 5 5 9 6 

Twice 3 6 6 6 7 

3-5 times 2 2 2 5 2 

&gt;5 times 3 1 1 2 1 

Not reported &lt;1 1 0 1 2 

Australia 

Number of injected last month 2111 2141 2071 1993 2314 

Re-used someone else's used needles &amp; syringe last month (%)    

None 84 83 83 80 82 

Once 5 6 5 6 5 

Twice 4 4 4 6 5 

3-5 times 3 3 4 4 4 

&gt;5 times 3 2 3 4 3 

Not reported 1 2 1 1 2 

Source: Australian Needle Syringe Program Survey National Data Report 2013-2017: Prevalence of HIV, HCV and injecting 
and sexual behaviour among NSP attendees [69] 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  132 

 

Measure: Rates of HIV and HCV antibody prevalence among people who have been injecting 

drugs for less than 3 years 

? HIV antibody prevalence among people who have been injecting drugs remained low and stable 

nationally, ranging from 0% to 3.1% over the period 2013 to 2017. South Australia was zero from 

2013 to 2016, but was 10% in 2017 (n=1 out of 10 persons tested, Table 91).   

? Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody prevalence among people who have been injecting drugs 

remained was 6% in 2017 nationally, and ranged from 6% to 16% over the period 2013 to 2017. 

South Australia ranged 7% to 20% over the same period, and was 20% in 2017 (n=2 out of 10 

tested, Table 91).   

 

Table 91: HIV and HCV antibody prevalence among people who have been injecting drugs for 
less than 3 years 

 HIV HCV 

 Male Female Total Male Female Total 

 n tested % 
+ve 

n tested % 
+ve 

n tested % 
+ve 

n tested % 
+ve 

n tested % 
+ve 

n tested % 
+ve 

National             

2013 120 4.2 38 0.0 160 3.1 120 4 38 24 160 9 

2014 116 2.6 41 0.0 158 1.9 116 6 41 12 158 8 

2015 110 3.6 32 0.0 143 2.8 101 14 27 22 128 16 

2016 67 0.0 39 0.0 108 0.0 67 7 38 21 107 13 

2017 97 1.0 44 0.0 143 0.7 96 4 44 11 142 6 

South 
Australia 

            

2013 3 0.0 8 0.0 11 0.0 3 0 8 25 11 18 

2014 3 0.0 4 0.0 7 0.0 3 33 4 0 7 14 

2015 5 0.0 5 0.0 10 0.0 5 20 5 40 10 30 

2016 9 0.0 6 0.0 15 0.0 9 0 6 17 15 7 

2017 6 16.7 4 0.0 10 10.0 6 17 4 25 10 20 

+ve: positive 
Source: Australian Needle Syringe Program Survey National Data Report 2013-2017: Prevalence of HIV, HCV and injecting 
and sexual behaviour among NSP attendees.[69] 

 

Measure: BBV testing and diagnosis in SA prisons - Proportion of people in custodial settings 

who are tested for each: HIV, HCV and HBV testing and diagnosis in SA prisons 

? Between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2015, 27% of South Australian prisoners on admission tested 

for hepatitis B, 30% tested for hepatitis C and 29% tested for HIV.   

? The proportion of prisoners on admission tested for blood borne viruses in South Australian 

prisons in 2017 increased when compared to 2014.  

? The number of prisoner s uptake hepatitis C treatment was 143 and 208 in 2016-17 and 2017-18 

respectively.  



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  133 

? Among the tested prison entrants from 2010 to 106 in South Australia, the prevalence of HIV was 

zero. The prevalence of HCV antibody increased from 21% in 2013 to 44% in 2016. The 

prevalence of HBV core-antibody was stable around 9-13%. 

Table 92: BBV testing rates in South Australian Prisons, 1 July 2014   30 June 2015 (12 
months) &amp; 1 July- 31 December 2017 (6 months) 

 1 July 2014   30 June 2015 (12 
months) 

1 July   31 December 2017 (6 months) 

Test Number 
of tests 

Total 
prisoner 
admissions 

Testing rate 
(tests/total 
prison 
admissions) 

Number of 
tests 

Total 
prisoner 
admissions 

Testing rate 
(tests/total 
prison 
admissions) 

Hepatitis B 964 5,725 17% 753 2,760 27% 

Hepatitis C 1,301 5,725 23% 829 2,760 30% 

HIV 1,286 5,725 22% 810 2,760 29% 
Source: Data provided by South Australian Prison Health Service, March 2018 
 
 

Figure 46: People tested for blood borne viruses in South Australian prisons as a proportion of 
admissions by reporting period, 2014 &amp; 2017 

 

Source: SA Health and South Australian Department for Correction Services (DCS), 2017, South Australian Prisoner Blood 
Borne Virus Prevention Action Plan 2017-2020. Available at: www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/prisonerbbvplan  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.17 

0.23 0.22 

0.27 
0.30 0.29 

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Hepatitis B Hepatitis C HIV

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p
o

rt
io

n
 o

f 
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is

si
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Testing rate (July 2014 to June 2015) Testing rate (July to December 2017)




 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  134 

 

 
Figure 47: People commencing treatment for hepatitis C in South Australian prisons by 
treatment type and 12 month reporting period 

 

Source: Hepatitis C treatment data provided by South Australian Prison Health Service, July 2018 

 

 

 

 

Table 93: Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV in prison entrants, South Australia, 2004-2016 

 2010 2013 2016 

Prevalence n tested n (%) n tested n (%) n tested n (%) 

South Australia       

HIV antibody 36 0 (0) 31 0 24 0 (0) 

IDU 15 0 (0) 15 0 16 0 (0) 

Non-IDU 21 0 (0) 16 0 8 0 (0) 

HCV antibody 33 7 (21) 34 6 (18) 25 11 (44) 

IDU 14 6 (43) 19 6 (32) 17 10 (59) 

Non-IDU 19 1 (5) 15 0 (0) 8 1 (13) 

HBV surface-antigen 9 1 (11) 23  4 (17) 21 0 (0) 

IDU 3 1 (33) 13 1 (8) 15 0 (0) 

Non-IDU 6 0 (0) 10 3 (30) 6 0 (0) 

HBV core-antibody 34 3 (9) 16 2 (13) 25 3 (12) 

IDU 15 2 (13) 6 2 (33) 17 2 (12) 

Non-IDU 19 1 (5) 10 0 (0) 8 1 (13) 

IDU=injecting drug user 
Source: National prison entrants' blood borne virus and risk behaviour survey report 2004, 2007, 2013 and 2016 [70] 

 

21 
14 

25 

143 

208 

0

50

100

150

200

250

Jan-Dec 2013 Jan-Dec 2014 Jan-Dec 2015 Mar 2016 - Feb
2017

July 2017 - June
2018

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 T

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CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  135 

Measure: Gay men having any unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners in the six 

months prior to the Adelaide Gay Community Periodic Survey, as a proportion of all gay men 

having sex with casual partners 

? The proportion of gay men engaging in risky sexual behaviour, having any unprotected anal 

intercourse with casual partners in the six months prior to the survey was stable among HIV-

negative men (33-39%) or men untested or with unknown HIV status (34-48%) over the period of 

2010 to 2016. However, the proportion of risky sexual behaviour among HIV-positive men 

significantly increased from 33% in 2010 to 65% in 2017 (p&lt;0.05 for trend over time). [71] 

 

Table 94: Any condomless anal intercourse with casual partners, by HIV status of participants, 
South Australia, 2012-2016 

 2010 2011 2012 2014 2016 

 n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) 

HIV-positive men 14 (33.3)  17 (51.5)  10 (35.7)  18 (48.7)  20 (64.5)  

Total 42 (100)  33 (100)  28 (100)  37(100)  31 (100) 

HIV-negative men 132 (32.6)  119 (37.1)  124 (33.7)  142 (35.3)  152 (39.3) 

Total 405 (100)  321 (100)  368 (100)  402 (100)  387 (100) 

Untested/unknown 
status men

1 
40 (46.0)  23 (36.5)  27 (34.2)  27 (45.0)  30 (48.4) 

Total 87 (100)  63 (100)  79 (100)  60 (100)  62 (100) 
Note: This table only includes data from men who reported that they had any casual male partners in the six months prior to 
survey. 
1 
Untested and unknown status includes men who have never been tested for HIV and men who have been tested but do not 

know their results. 
Source: Gay Community Periodic Survey: Adelaide 2016 [71] 

 

 

Measure: Number and proportion of non-HIV positive men tested for HIV in the 12 months prior 

to the Adelaide Gay Community Periodic Survey 

? The number and proportion of non-HIV positive men tested for HIV in the 12 months prior to the 

survey was stable from 2010 to 2016, ranging from 66% to 74%. 

 

Table 95: Number and proportion of non-HIV positive men tested for HIV in the previous 12 
months, South Australia, 2010-2016 

 2010 2011 2012 2014 2016 

Non-HIV-positive participants n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) 

Tested in the previous 12 months 500 (66.3)  364 (67.5)  467 (74.0)  487 (67.0)  486 (68.8) 

Total 754 (100)  539 (100)  631 (100)  727 (100)  706 (100) 
Source: Gay Community Periodic Survey: Adelaide 2016 [71] 

 

Measure: Number and proportion of people with HIV on treatment and number with 

undetectable viral load 

? The proportion of people with HIV on treatment in South Australia was 100% in 2016, increased 

significantly over the period of 2010 to 2016 (p&lt;0.01 for trend over time).   

? The proportion of men with undetectable viral load among men on HIV treatment was 44.7%, 

decreased 58.5% in 2014, but not statistically significant.  

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  136 

Table 96: Use of combination antiretroviral treatment among HIV-positive men, South 
Australia, 2010-2016 

 2010 2011 2012 2014 2016 

 n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) 

Men on treatment 54 (87.1)  35 (85.4)  32 (91.4)  53 (94.6)  47 (100) 

Total 62 (100)  41 (100)  35 (100)  56 (100)  47 (100) 

Source: Gay Community Periodic Survey: Adelaide 2016 [71] 

 

Table 97: Undetectable viral load and CD4 count among HIV-positive men, by treatment status, 
South Australia, 2010-2016 

 2010 2011 2012 2014 2016 

 n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) 

Men on treatment 51 (94.4)  33 (94.3)  31 (96.9)  48 (90.6)  45 (95.7) 

Undetectable viral load - - 19 (59.4)  31 (58.5)  21 (44.7) 

CD4 count &gt; 500 54 (100)  35 (100)  32 (100)  53 (100)  47 (100) 

Men not on treatment      

Undetectable viral load 1 (12.5)  4 (66.7)  2 (66.7)  0 - 

CD4 count &gt; 500 - - 1 (33.6) 1 (33.3) - 

Total 8 (100) 6 (100) 3 (100) 3 (100) 0 

Source: Gay Community Periodic Survey: Adelaide 2016 [71] 

 

 

Measure: Number and proportion of people with HBV engaged in care (monitoring or on 

treatment) 

? Treatment uptake in South Australia for chronic hepatitis B in 2016 was 4.5% (5.3% for Adelaide 

PHN and 1.6% for Country SA), below the national average of 7.2%. Treatment uptake in 

Country SA was low, ranking fourth lowest in Australia. [72]   

? The uptake of monitoring in SA was lower than the national average, and was below what would 

be expected, given the uptake of treatment. In Adelaide, where treatment uptake was 5.2%, 

fewer than half that number (2.1%) were receiving off-treatment monitoring, and in Country SA 

the proportion was only 0.5%, leading to proportions in care in Adelaide and Country SA of 5.2% 

and 1.6%, respectively. Country SA had the lowest care uptake of any PHN in Australia. 

However, there were an above-average number of on-treatment viral loads occurring in SA, 

which suggests that coding discrepancies in Medicare services may partly explain the 

disproportionately low number of off-treatment viral load tests. 

 

Table 98: Chronic hepatitis B treatment and care uptake by PHN, South Australia, 2016 

 Australia SA Adelaide Country SA 

People living with CHB, n 237,894 14,460 11,616 2,844 

Treatment uptake, % 7.2 4.5 5.2 1.6 

Care uptake, % 16.9 6.3 7.4 2.1 

Source: Hepatitis B mapping project, national report 2016 [72] 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  137 

Measure: Number and proportion of people with HCV on treatment, and number with a 

sustained virological response to treatment 

? In South Australia, among 11,683 people were living with chronic hepatitis C at the start of 2016, 

17% of them initiating direct-acting antiviral therapy in 2016.  

 

Table 99: Number and proportion of people with chronic hepatitis C infection initiating direct?
acting antiviral therapy, 2016, South Australia and Australia 

 Number 
initiating 
direct-acting 
antiviral therapy 
in 2016 

Estimated number of 
people living with 
chronic hepatitis C at 
the start of 2016 

Proportion of people 
initiating direct-acting 
antiviral therapy 

 2016 2016 2016 2016-2018* 

South Australia 2,020 11,682  17% 32% 

Australia 32,550  227,306  14% 26% 

* March 2016 - March 2018 
Source: HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: annual surveillance report 2017 [73] 
Source: Monitoring hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia, issue #9 July 2018 [74] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  138 

Indicator: Health care associated infection prevention 

Hand hygiene compliance in hospitals 

Measure: Overall hand hygiene compliance rate for public and private hospitals in South 

Australia (as defined by Hand Hygiene Australia) 

? The hand hygiene compliance national target is 80% and South Australia state target is 85%. 

The SA Health overall compliance was 81% and 80% in 2016 and 2017 respectively.   

 

Table 100: Hand hygiene compliance rate, South Australia, 2009-2017 

Compliance (%) 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017* 

South Australia 53 65 68 74 77 80 81 81 80 

Central Adelaide Local 
Health Network 

53 65 68 74 77 79 81 79 80 

Southern Adelaide 
Local Health Network 

53 65 68 73 76 80 81 81 74 

Northern Adelaide 
Local Health Network 

53 65 68 72 77 79 76 79 79 

Country Health SA 
Local Health Network 

53 65 68 74 77 80 81 81 80 

Women' s and 
Children's Hospital 

53 65 68 74 77 80 80 81 80 

* December 2017 
Source: SA Health Hand hygiene compliance [75] 

 

Multiresistant healthcare associated infections 

Measure: Infection rate for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections (MRSA, ESBL, VRE, MR 

PER, other) per 10,000 patient days in South Australian hospitals 

Antibiotic-resistant organisms deemed to be of epidemiological importance and therefore included in 

the South Australian surveillance program include:  

? methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)  

? vancomycin-intermediate/resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA/VRSA)  

? vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)  

? extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative organisms (ESBL)*  

? multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MR PAER)*  

? carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species and Enterobacteriaceae (CR GNB)*  

? plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producers (AMP C)*  

? metallo beta-lactamase producers (MBL)*.  

? collectively referred to as multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives (MRGN) in this report  

The South Australian healthcare-associated surveillance report data is received from eight public and 

nine private metropolitan hospitals, and six Country Health SA (CHSA) hospitals. Of the 23 

contributors, 11 provide data stratified by intensive care unit status (paediatric, neonatal or adult ICU). 

[76] 

? For type 1 hospitals, the infection rates for the main groups of multidrug-resistant organisms 

remained relatively unchanged during 2017 compared to 2016: MRSA decreased from 1.4 per 

10,000 bed-days in 2016 to 1.1 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017  

? MRGN increased from 1.7 per 10,000 bed-days in 2016 to 1.8 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017  

? VRE increased from 0.8 per 10,000 bed-days in 2016 to 0.9 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017.  



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  139 

? For all contributors in 2017, the primary site of first acquisition (excluding screening specimens) 

for MRSA was skin or wound (62%), for VRE it was urine (62%) and for MRGN it was urine 

(56%).  

? The aggregate rate of MRSA acquisition for all contributing hospitals has decreased to 1.6 per 

10,000 bed-days in 2017 from 1.7 per 10,000 bed-days in 2016. The predominant site of 

acquisition with MRSA was skin/wound (62%). Of the 138 healthcare-associated MRSA 

infections reported in 2017, 36% occurred in patients known to be colonised with this organism.  

? The aggregate rate of infection with VRE has increased slightly from 0.6 per 10,000 bed-days in 

2016 to 0.7 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017; the most common site of VRE infection in 2017 was 

urine (35%), followed by bloodstream (28%).  

? The aggregate rate of infection caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae decreased from 

0.95 per 10,000 bed days in 2016 to 0.93 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017; the most common site of 

ESBL infection in 2017 was urine (58%).  

? For intensive care patients, there was a decrease in sterile site MRSA infections from 1.1 per 

10,000 bed-days in 2016 to 0.4 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017 (p&gt;0.05); the rate of MRSA 

infection in non-sterile body sites also decreased from 2.9 per 10,000 bed-days in 2016 to 1.0 

per 10,000 bed-days in 2017 (p&lt;0.05).  

? The overall MRGN acquisition rate continues to increase, from 1.4 per 10,000 bed-days in 2012 

to 1.7 per 10,000 bed-days in 2017, the majority of new acquisitions were detected in clinical 

specimens and identified as causing clinical infection.  

 

Table 101: Multiresistant healthcare associated infections reporting participating hospitals, 
South Australia 

Public Hospitals Type Private Hospitals Type 

Flinders Medical Centre 1 Ashford Hospital PRIV 

Lyell McEwin Hospital 1 Burnside Hospital PRIV 

Modbury Hospital 1 Calvary Hospital PRIV 

Queen Elizabeth Hospital 1 Flinders Private Hospital PRIV 

Repatriation General Hospital 1 Memorial Hospital PRIV 

Royal Adelaide Hospital 1 North Eastern Hospital PRIV 

Women's &amp; Children s Hospital 1 St. Andrew's Hospital PRIV 

Noarlunga Hospital 2 Wakefield Hospital PRIV 

Port Augusta Hospital 2 Western Hospital PRIV 

Port Lincoln Hospital 2   

Whyalla Hospital 2   

Riverland (Berri) Regional Services 2   

Mount Gambier Hospital 2   

Source: South Australian Healthcare-associated Infection Surveillance Program, Multidrug-resistant Organisms, annual report 
2017 [76] 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  140 

Figure 48: Healthcare associated infection rates for MRSA, VRE and MRGN in type 1 hospitals, 
South Australia, 2012-2017 

 

Source: South Australian Healthcare-associated Infection Surveillance Program, Multidrug-resistant Organisms, annual report 
2017 [76] 

 

Figure 49: Healthcare associated infection rates for MRSA, VRE and MRGN in type 2 and 
private hospitals, South Australia, 2012-2017 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  141 

Table 102: MRGN and ESBL infection, South Australia &amp; Australia, 2007-08 to 2017-18 

    rate per 10,000 
bed-days 

DDD per 1,000 OBDs 

Financial 
Year 

MRGN ESBL Bed-
days 

MRGN ESBL Carbapenems 
(SA) 

Carbapenems 
(National) 

2007/08 83 37 793557 1.05 0.47 9.28 18.82 

2008/09 83 48 798509 1.04 0.60 11.81 19.90 

2009/10 65 33 825572 0.79 0.40 11.75 21.18 

2010/11 100 54 845758 1.18 0.64 15.54 22.12 

2011/12 106 61 857679 1.24 0.71 17.51 22.76 

2012/13 135 93 863193 1.56 1.08 18.46 21.06 

2013/14 168 112 890292 1.89 1.26 16.48 21.23 

2014/15 141 83 887782 1.59 0.93 16.33 19.78 

2015/16 181 118 874679 2.07 1.35 16.68 19.55 

2016/17 170 110 893323 1.90 1.23 21.00 20.48 

2017/18 159 108 916209 1.74 1.18 23.06 22.40 

Source: South Australian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance Program + National Antimicrobial Utilisation Surveillance 
Program (provided by CBCD, SA Health) 

 

Figure 50: Infection rates of MRGN and ESBL, South Australia &amp; Australia, 2007-08 to 2017-18 

 
Source: South Australian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance Program + National Antimicrobial Utilisation Surveillance 
Program (provided by CBCD, SA Health) 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  142 

Table 103: Multi-resistant healthcare associated infection in South Australian public hospitals, 
2010-11 to 2017-18 

Financial 
year 

2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18 

Bed-days 1437736 1500076 1477343 1415811 1416853 1419313 1431177 1384234 

Case number         

ESBL 67 79 114 130 98 132 122 120 

MR PAER 42 38 28 31 33 40 38 27 

MRSA 188 175 191 178 171 155 136 141 

OTHER 7 9 21 28 35 27 28 28 

VRE 68 41 56 82 62 88 113 65 

Grand Total 372 342 410 449 399 442 437 381 

Rate         

ESBL 0.47 0.53 0.77 0.92 0.69 0.93 0.85 0.87 

MR PAER 0.29 0.25 0.19 0.22 0.23 0.28 0.27 0.20 

MRSA 1.31 1.17 1.29 1.26 1.21 1.09 0.95 1.02 

OTHER 0.05 0.06 0.14 0.20 0.25 0.19 0.20 0.20 

VRE 0.47 0.27 0.38 0.58 0.44 0.62 0.79 0.47 

Total 2.59 2.28 2.78 3.17 2.82 3.11 3.05 2.75 

MRSA: methicillin-resistant Stapylococcus aureus 
ESBL: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriacease 
VRE: vancomycin-resistant enterococci 
MR PAER: multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Other: includes AMPC, CRGNB, MBL 
Source: South Australian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance Program (provided by CBCD, SA Health) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  143 

Figure 51: Trend in multi-resistant  healthcare associated infections in SA public hospitals, 
2010-11 to 2017-18 

 

MRSA: methicillin-resistant Stapylococcus aureus 
ESBL: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriacease 
VRE: vancomycin-resistant enterococci 
MR PAER: multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Other: includes AMPC, CRGNB, MBL 
Source: South Australian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance Program (provided by CBCD, SA Health) 

 

Antimicrobial usage in hospitals 

Measure: Standardised usage density rate for each microbial agent, defined as number of 

Defined Daily Doses (DDDs) used per 1000 occupied bed days (OBDs) for adults in South 

Australian hospitals 

The National Antimicrobial Utilisation Surveillance Program (NAUSP) uses standardised usage 

density rates, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical 

(ATC) standards for defined daily doses (DDDs). The denominator is overnight OBDs. Reporting on 

antimicrobial use based on DDDs enables assessment and comparison of total hospital use as a rate, 

and also allows international comparisons.[77]  

The NAUSP is administered by the Infection Control Service, Communicable Disease Control Branch, 

at SA Health. Development and implementation of NAUSP have been an ongoing collaboration 

between SA Health and the Commission as part of AURA since 2013. Participation in NAUSP is 

voluntary. 

? AURA 2017: Second Australian report on antimicrobial use and resistance in human health 

provides data and analysis from the Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) 

Surveillance System, primarily from 2015. [78] 

 

 

 

 

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18

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MRSA ESBL VRE MR PAER OTHER



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  144 

Table 104: Antibacterial usage rates in NAUSP contributor hospitals, by state and territory, and 
peer group, 2015 

State or 
territory 

Hospitals 
contribut-
ing to 
NAUSP 
(number) 

Antibacterial usage rate (DDD/1,000 OBD) 

All 
hospitals 
rate  

All 
hospitals 
rang  

Principal 
Referral 
Hospitals  

Public 
Acute 
Group A 
Hospitals  

Public 
Acute 
Group B 
Hospitals  

Public 
Acute 
Group C 
Hospitals  

Private 
Hospitals  

ACT and 
NSW 53 1079.0 416-1792 

988.7  
(n=12) 

1,113.2  
(n = 22) 

1,133.2  
(n = 15) 

1,001.3  
(n &lt;5) - 

Vic 29 887.0 322-1524 
837.4  
(n=6) 

962.1  
(n = 11) 

843.9  
(n = 7) - 

848.7  
(n &lt;5) 

NT and 
QLD 38 916.0 378-1808 

810.7  
(n = 6) 

846.8  
(n = 12) 

664.9  
(n = 7) 

1,453.1  
(n = 5) 

981.8  
(n = 7) 

SA 21 873.0 341-1445 
1,011.8  
(n &lt;5) 

886.2  
(n &lt;5) 

840.1  
(n &lt;5) 

724.6  
(n &lt;5) 

856.7  
(n = 7) 

WA 13 763.0 392-1139 
924.1  
(n &lt;5) 

508.3  
(n &lt;5) 

894.6  
(n = 2) - 

873.1  
(n &lt;5) 

Tas 5 1220.0 1183-1254 - 
1,212.5  
(n &lt;5) - - - 

Australia 159 954.1 322-1808 
914.4  
(n = 30) 

939  
(n = 55) 

872.7  
(n = 36) 

984.9  
(n = 12) 

917.4  
(n = 21) 

  = data not able to be calculated because of either a small sample size or no contributors 
Note: Rates are mean rates for all hospitals. Specialist Women s Hospitals are not included. Private hospitals are combined 
because of small numbers. Source: NAUSP20 
Source: AURA 2017: Second Australian report on antimicrobial use and resistance in human health  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  145 

Table 105: Total-hospital antibacterial usage rates (DDD/1000 OBD) in SA NAUSP contributor 
hospitals, by antibacterial class, 2012 16 

 Antibacterial usage rate (DDD/1000 OBD) 

Antibacterial class 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 

Aminoglycosides 58.7 55.5 55.3 50.2 46.0 

Amphenicols 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

?-lactamase inhibitor combinations 161.3 165.4 164.3 162.8 165.2 

?-lactamase -resistant penicillins 73.2 76.2 74.5 76.9 81.2 

?-lactamase -sensitive penicillins 30.4 23.0 23.0 31.5 23.8 

Carbapenems 13.1 14.4 12.1 13.0 16.1 

Extended-spectrum penicillins 134.1 161.3 182.9 117.1 154.6 

First-generation cephalosporins 111.1 122.2 129.8 147.4 146.8 

Fluoroquinolones 48.4 47.2 42.9 38.0 35.5 

Fourth-generation cephalosporins 5.7 4.8 6.1 6.9 8.5 

Glycopeptides 26.5 27.3 24.6 24.5 28.1 

Lincosamides 9.2 10.8 10.8 10.2 10.4 

Macrolides 76.0 67.4 68.7 73.6 74.0 

Monobactams 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 

Nitrofurans 0.6 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.1 

Nitroimidazoles (metronidazole) 48.4 44.9 43.6 45.0 42.0 

Other antibacterials (daptomycin + linezolid) 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.8 

Other cephalosporins and penems (ceftaroline) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 

Polymyxins 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4 

Rifamycins 3.2 3.7 2.8 3.2 2.7 

Second-generation cephalosporins 5.5 4.8 4.4 5.0 3.8 

Steroids (fusidic acid) 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 

Streptogramins 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 

Streptomycins 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

Sulfonamide/trimethoprim combinations 9.6 9.7 8.5 10.5 12.1 

Tetracyclines 41.7 37.2 37.8 34.5 35.4 

Third-generation cephalosporins 42.5 40.0 38.3 41.7 40.1 

Trimethoprim 28.6 24.1 23.3 21.2 19.5 

Total 931.6 953.9 958.3 917.2 951 

Note: Figures may vary slightly from previous reports as a result of retrospective data adjustments. Statistical analyses of 
change over time have not been undertaken because of small numbers. The potential to assess the significance of change 
over time will be explored in future analyses. 
Source: Antimicrobial use in South Australian hospitals - 2016 Report from the National Antimicrobial Utilisation Surveillance 
Program [79] 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  146 

Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia infections in public hospitals 

Measure: Rate of SAB (including MRSA) per 10,000 occupied bed days for South Australian 

acute care public hospitals. 

? The National Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteraemia Data Collection (NSABDC) reveals that the 

number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-sensitive 

Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were 25 and 88 respective in South Australia public hospital in 

2016-17. The infection rates for MRSA and MSSA were 0.17 and 0.60 per 10,000 days of patient 

care respectively, which are similar to the national level. [80] 

 

Table 106: Case of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in public hospitals, MRSA and 
MSSA, South Australia, 2016-17 

 

South Australia Australia 

 
SAB cases 

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 25 290 

Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 88 1212 

Total 113 1502 

 

SAB cases per 10,000 days of patient 
care 

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 0.17 0.15 

Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 0.60 0.61 

Total 0.77 0.76 

Days of patient care under surveillance ('000) 1467 19875 

Coverage (%) 97 99 
Source: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Australian hospitals 2016-17: Australian hospital statistics [80] 

 

Table 107: Rates (SAB cases per 10,000 days of patient care) of Staphylococcus aureus 

bacteraemia (SAB) in public hospitals, by peer group, 2016 17 

 

South Australia Australia 

Principal referral hospitals 1.14 1.09 

Public acute group A hospitals 0.88 0.74 

Public acute group B hospitals 0.39 0.45 

Other hospitals 0.27 0.35 

All public hospitals 0.77 0.76 
Source: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Australian hospitals 2016-17: Australian hospital statistics [80] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  147 

Table 108: cases and rate (SAB cases per 10,000 days of patient care) of staphylococcus 
aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in public hospitals, by principal referral, public acute A and cute B 
hospitals, 2016-17 

South Australian Hospitals Cases Rate 

Principal referral hospitals 
  

  Royal Adelaide Hospital 43 1.49 

  Flinders Medical Centre 17 0.72 

Public acute group A hospitals 
  

  Queen Elizabeth 16 1.23 

  Lyell McEwin 17 1.06 

  Repatriation General 4 0.48 

  Modbury 1 0.18 

Public acute group B hospitals 
  

  Whyalla 2 0.87 

  Port Augusta 1 0.51 

  Mount Gambier 1 0.35 

  Noarlunga Public 0 0.00 
Source: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Australian hospitals 2016-17: Australian hospital statistics [80] 

 

Figure 52: Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bloodstream infections, 
principal referral hospitals and public acute group A hospitals, 2010-2016 

 
Source: Web update: Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in 2016-17 [81] 

  

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

2010 11 2011 12 2012 13 2013 14 2014 15 2015 16 2016 17 

R
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0

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0

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Royal Adelaide Hospital Flinders Medical Centre

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Lyell McEwin Hospital

Repatriation General Hospital Modbury Hospital



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  148 

Indicator: Fruit and vegetable consumption 

According to the Australian Dietary Guidelines [82], the recommended daily serves for fruit for people 

of all ages and life stages is two, and is 5-6 serves for vegetable.  

Table 109: Recommended daily serves of fruit and vegetables for children, Australia 

Age 

Serves per day 

Fruit  Vegetable 

Boys Girls Boys Girls 

2 to 3 years 1 1 2.5 ? 2.5 ? 

4 to 8 years 1.5 ? 1.5 ? 4.5 ? 4.5 ? 

9 to 11 years 2 2 5 5 

12 to 13 years 2 2 5.5 ? 5 

14 to 17 years 2 2 5.5 ? 5 

? Number of recommended serves has been rounded down to closest integer for reporting purposes 
Source: Australian Dietary Guideline 2013. [82] 

 

Measure: Mean number of serves of fruit (1 medium piece or 2 small pieces of fruit, 1 cup of 

diced pieces, or 1 tablespoon of dried fruit) consumed per day, adults   self reported 
 

Measure: Proportion of adults meeting the Australian Dietary Guidelines (2013) 

recommendations for fruit consumption   self reported 

? 42.1% of South Australian adults met the recommended fruit consumption in 2016-18 

? South Australian adults reported consuming an average of 1.5 pieces of fruit per day in 2016-18. 

 
Table 110: Fruit consumption, adults aged 18 years and over, South Australia, July 2016   
March 2018 

Adults (18 years 
and over) n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD 

All 4095/9733 42.1 (41.1-43.1) 9733 1.5  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Male 1828/4699 38.9 (37.5-40.3) 4699 1.4  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Female 2267/5033 45.0 (43.7-46.4) 5033 1.5  (0.0 - 5.0)  0.9 

Location 

Metro 3071/6989 43.9 (42.8-45.1) 6989 1.5  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Rural 1024/2744 37.3 (35.5-39.1) 2744 1.4  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Age 

18-29 819/1972 41.5 (39.4-43.7) 1972 1.5  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

30-49 1188/3094 38.4 (36.7-40.1) 3094 1.4  (0.0 - 5.0)  0.9 

50-69 1364/3205 42.6 (40.9-44.3) 3205 1.5  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

70 years and over 724/1462 49.5 (47.0-52.1) 1462 1.6  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

SEIFA 

Lowest 734/1968 37.3 (35.2-39.5) 1968 1.3  (0.0 - 5.0)  0.9 

Lowest 698/1849 37.8 (35.6-40.0) 1849 1.4  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Middle 810/1925 42.1 (39.9-44.3) 1925 1.4  (0.0 - 5.0)  0.9 

High 881/1894 46.5 (44.3-48.8) 1894 1.6  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Highest 956/2072 46.1 (44.0-48.3) 2072 1.6  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  149 

Measure: Mean number of serves of fruit  (1 medium pieces or 2 small pieces of fruit, 1 cup of 

diced pieces, or 1 tablespoon of dried fruit) consumed per day, children (2-17 years old)   
parent reported 

 

Measure: Proportion of children (2-17 years old) meeting the Australian Dietary Guidelines 

(2013) recommendations for fruit consumption parent reported 

? 72.0% of South Australian children met the recommended fruit consumption in 2016-18 

? South Australian children reported consuming an average of 1.9 pieces of fruit per day in 2016-

18. 

 

Table 111: Fruit consumption, children aged 2-17 years, South Australia, July 2016   March 
2018 

Children 2 to 17 
years n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD 

All 1840/2557 72.0 (70.2-73.7) 2557 1.9  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

Male 937/1331 70.3 (67.9-72.8) 1331 1.9  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Female 904/1226 73.7 (71.2-76.1) 1226 1.9  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

Location 

Metro 1297/1832 70.8 (68.7-72.8) 1832 1.9  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

Rural 544/726 74.9 (71.7-78.0) 726 1.9  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

Age 

2 to 4 429/454 94.5 (92.1-96.3) 454 2.1  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

5 to 9 645/723 89.2 (86.8-91.3) 723 2.0  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

10 to 14 400/720 55.6 (51.9-59.2) 720 1.7  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

15 to 17 366/661 55.5 (51.6-59.1) 661 1.8  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

SEIFA 

Lowest 285/450 63.2 (58.8-67.7) 450 1.6  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Lowest 342/479 71.5 (67.2-75.3) 479 1.8  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 

Middle 369/495 74.5 (70.6-78.2) 495 2.0  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

High 338/475 71.2 (67.0-75.1) 475 1.9  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.2 

Highest 501/651 76.9 (73.6-80.1) 651 2.0  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.0 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  150 

 

Table 112: Fruit consumption patterns, South Australia, July 2016   March 2018 

 Adults (?18 years) Children (2-17 years) 

 n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) 

0 serves 430 4.4 (4.0-4.8) 65 2.5 (2.0-3.2) 

1 or less than 1 
serve 

5207 53.5 (52.5-54.5) 
888 34.7 (32.9-36.6) 

2 serves 2800 28.8 (27.9-29.7) 1020 39.9 (38.0-41.8) 

3 serves 925 9.5 (8.9-10.1) 380 14.9 (13.5-16.3) 

4 serves 267 2.7 (2.4-3.1) 148 5.8 (4.9-6.7) 

5 or more serves 103 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 57 2.2 (1.7-2.9) 

Total 9733 100.0 
 

2557 100.0  

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Measure: Mean number of serves of vegetables (1/2 cup cooked vegetables or 1 cup of salad) 

consumed per day, adults   self reported 

 

Measure: Proportion of adults meeting the Australian Dietary Guidelines (2013) 

recommendations for vegetable consumption per day- self reported 

? 8.8% of South Australian adults met the recommended vegetable consumption in 2016-18 

? South Australian adults reported consuming an average of 2.4 pieces of vegetable per day in 

2016-18. 

 

Table 113: Vegetable consumption, adults aged 18 years and over, South Australia, July 2016   
March 2018 

Adults (18 years 
and over) n/N % CI N Mean Range SD 

All 849/9685 8.8 (8.2-9.3) 9685 2.4  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Male 223/4680 4.8 (4.2-5.4) 4680 2.3  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Female 626/5005 12.5 (11.6-13.4) 5005 2.6  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.6 

Location 

Metro 598/6941 8.6 (8.0-9.3) 6941 2.4  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Rural 251/2744 9.1 (8.1-10.3) 2744 2.5  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Age 

18-29 117/1965 5.9 (5.0-7.1) 1965 2.3  (0.0 - 8.0)  1.5 

30-49 240/3087 7.8 (6.9-8.8) 3087 2.5  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.6 

50-69 342/3183 10.8 (9.7-11.9) 3183 2.4  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

70 years and over 150/1449 10.4 (8.9-12.0) 1449 2.4  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

SEIFA 

Lowest 175/1962 8.9 (7.7-10.2) 1962 2.3  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Lowest 145/1842 7.9 (6.7-9.2) 1842 2.3  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Middle 170/1921 8.9 (7.6-10.2) 1921 2.5  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

High 172/1874 9.2 (7.9-10.5) 1874 2.5  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 

Highest 185/2061 9.0 (7.8-10.3) 2061 2.5  (0.0 - 10.0)  1.5 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  151 

 

Measure: Mean number of serves of vegetables (1/2 cup cooked vegetables or 1 cup of salad) 

consumed per day, child (2-17 years old)   parent reported 

 

Measure: Proportion of children (2-17 years old) meeting the Australian Dietary Guidelines 

(2013) recommendations for vegetable consumption per day- parent reported 

? 12.4% of South Australian adults met the recommended vegetable consumption in 2016-18 

? South Australian children reported consuming an average of 2.0 pieces of vegetable per day in 

2016-18. 

 
Table 114: Vegetable consumption, children aged 2-17 years, July 2016   March 2018 

Children 2 to 17 
years n/N % 95% CI N Mean Range SD 

All 316/2559 12.4 (11.1-13.7) 2559 2.0  (0.0 - 8.0)  1.2 

Male 136/1341 10.1 (8.6-11.8) 1341 2.0  (0.0 - 7.0)  1.2 

Female 181/1218 14.8 (12.9-16.9) 1218 2.0  (0.0 - 8.0)  1.2 

Location 

Metro 204/1827 11.2 (9.8-12.7) 1827 2.0  (0.0 - 8.0)  1.2 

Rural 112/732 15.3 (12.8-18.0) 732 2.0  (0.0 - 6.0)  1.2 

Age 

2 to 4 178/457 38.9 (34.6-43.5) 457 1.6  (0.0 - 4.0)  0.9 

5 to 9 60/723 8.3 (6.5-10.5) 723 1.9  (0.0 - 6.0)  1.2 

10 to 14 37/718 5.2 (3.7-7.0) 718 2.2  (0.0 - 7.0)  1.2 

15 to 17 41/662 6.2 (4.5-8.2) 662 2.2  (0.0 - 8.0)  1.3 

SEIFA 

Lowest 50/450 11.1 (8.5-14.3) 450 1.8  (0.0 - 6.0)  1.2 

Lowest 42/482 8.8 (6.4-11.5) 482 1.8  (0.0 - 5.0)  1.1 

Middle 82/501 16.3 (13.3-19.8) 501 2.1  (0.0 - 8.0)  1.3 

High 70/473 14.7 (11.8-18.2) 473 2.1  (0.0 - 6.0)  1.1 

Highest 72/645 11.2 (8.9-13.8) 645 2.2  (0.0 - 7.0)  1.3 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 
Table 115: Vegetable consumption patterns, South Australia, July 2016   March 2018 

 Adults (?18 years) Children (2-17 years) 

 n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI) 

0 serves 223 2.3 (2.0-2.6) 63 2 (1.9-3.1) 

1 or less than 1 
serve 

2559 26.4 (25.6-27.3) 860 34 (31.8-35.5) 

2 serves 2830 29.2 (28.3-30.1) 981 38 (36.5-40.2) 

3 serves 1839 19.0 (18.2-19.8) 352 14 (12.5-15.1) 

4 serves 1232 12.7 (12.1-13.4) 189 7 (6.4-8.4) 

5 or more serves 1002 10.3 (9.8-11.0) 114 4 (3.7-5.3) 

Total 9685 100.0   2559 100 0 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  152 

Figure 53: Mean daily serves of fruit and vegetable consumption, South Australia, 2002-03 to 
2017-18 

 

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Indicator: Breastfeeding 

Measure: Mean length of time children were breastfed AN/OR proportion of children ever 

breastfed 

NDA 

Indicator: Sufficient physical activity 

Measure: Proportion of children aged 5-17 years by number of days undertaking at least 60 

minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (meeting physical activity 

guidelines)  parent reported 

? More than half of South Australian children aged 5-17 years undertook at least 60 minutes of 

moderate to vigorous physical activity for 4 or more days per week in 2016-18. 

? 35.8% of SA children undertook at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity 

every day in 2016-18. 

? Higher proportion of boys undertook at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity 

per day than girls.  

 
Table 116: Number of days per week engaged in 60 minutes of at least moderate intensity 
physical activity, South Australian children aged 5-15 years (n=2098), July 2016   March 2018:  

Days per week n %   (95% CI) 

0 138 6.6 (5.6-7.7) 

1 123 5.9 (4.9-6.9) 

2 181 8.6 (7.5-9.9) 

3 272 13.0 (11.6-14.5) 

4 214 10.2 (9.0-11.6) 

5 323 15.4 (13.9-17.0) 

6 96 4.6 (3.7-5.5) 

7 752 35.8 (33.8-37.9) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

200
2/03

200
3/04

200
4/05

200
5/06

200
6/07

200
7/08

200
8/09

200
9/10

201
0/11

201
1/12

201
2/13

201
3/14

201
4/15

201
5/16

201
6/17

201
7/18

Vegetables-adults 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.3

Vegetables-children 1.9 2 2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2 2.2 2 2

Fruit-adult 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Fruit-children 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 2

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

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e

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e
rv

e
s 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  153 

Table 117: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-15 years who undertook at least 60 
minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day, July 2016   March 2018 

Children 5 to 17 
years n/N % 95% CI 

All 752/2098 35.8 (33.8-37.9) 

Male 462/1120 41.3 (38.4-44.2) 

Female 290/978 29.6 (26.9-32.6) 

Location 

Metro 565/1554 36.3 (34.0-38.8) 

Rural 187/544 34.4 (30.5-38.4) 

Age 

5 to 9 349/712 49.1 (45.4-52.7) 

10 to 14 226/719 31.4 (28.1-34.9) 

15 to 17 177/667 26.5 (23.3-30.0) 

SEIFA 

Lowest 137/369 37.2 (32.3-42.1) 

Lowest 111/367 30.3 (25.7-35.1) 

Middle 125/406 30.9 (26.4-35.4) 

High 153/392 39.0 (34.3-43.9) 

Highest 222/557 39.9 (35.9-44.0) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Figure 54: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-15 years who undertook at least 60 
minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day, July 2002   March 2018 

 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  154 

Measure: Proportion of adults aged 18 to 64 years reporting at least 150 minutes of moderate 

physical activity per week (meeting physical activity guidelines) 

? 46.7% of South Australian adults reported doing 150 minutes or more of moderate intensity 

physical activity in 2016-18.  

? Higher proportion of people in higher SEIFA groups (less disadvantaged) reported doing at least 

150 minutes or more physical activities in 2016-18. 

? Higher proportion of men than women doing at least 150 minutes or more physical activities.  

 

Table 118: Proportion of South Australian adults aged 18 years and over reporting no activity, 
some activity, and 150 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity, July 2016   
March 2018 

 

n (%) 95 % CI 

No Activity 2125 22.3 (21.4-23.1) 

Some Activity 2963 31.1 (30.1-32.0) 

150 minute or more 4454 46.7 (45.7-47.7) 

Total 9542 100.0   

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Table 119: Proportion of South Australian adults aged 18 years and over reporting at least 150 
minutes or more physical activities, July 2016   March 2018 

Adults (18 years and 
over) n/N % 95% CI 

All 4454/9542 46.7 (45.7-47.7) 

Male 2320/4574 50.7 (49.3-52.2) 

Female 2134/4968 43.0 (41.6-44.3) 

Location 

Metro 3325/6870 48.4 (47.2-49.6) 

Rural 1130/2673 42.3 (40.4-44.2) 

Age 

18-29 1296/1915 67.7 (65.6-69.7) 

30-49 1444/3043 47.5 (45.7-49.2) 

50-69 1284/3143 40.8 (39.1-42.6) 

70 years and over 431/1441 29.9 (27.6-32.3) 

SEIFA 

Lowest 734/1908 38.5 (36.3-40.7) 

Lowest 843/1823 46.3 (44.0-48.5) 

Middle 809/1882 43.0 (40.8-45.2) 

High 963/1875 51.3 (49.1-53.6) 

Highest 1095/2029 54.0 (51.8-56.1) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  155 

Figure 55: Proportion of South Australian adults aged 18 years or older reporting at least 150 
minutes of moderate physical activity per week, July 2003   March 2018 

 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Measure: Proportion of children aged 5 to 15 years doing organised sport each week (by time 

spent) 

? 4.0% of South Australian children reported spent more than 1.5 hours per day in organised sport 

in 2016-18.  

 

Table 120: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-15 years reporting time spent in 
organised sport per day (n=1652), July 2016 - March 2018 

Hours per day n % (95% CI) 

0 hours 491 29.7 (27.6-32.0) 

More than 0 to 0.5 hours 691 41.8 (39.5-44.2) 

More than 0.5 hours to 1 hour 342 20.7 (18.8-22.7) 

More than 1 hour to 1.5 hours 63 3.8 (3.0-4.8) 

More than 1.5 hours 66 4.0 (3.1-5.0) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  156 

Table 121: Organised sports (minutes/day) of South Australian children aged 5-15 years, July 
2016   March 2018 

Children 5 to 15 
years N Mean Range SD Median (IQR) 

All 1652 25.7  (0.0 - 300.0)  35.6 17.1 (0.0 - 34.3)  

Male 908 26.5  (0.0 - 300.0)  36.8 17.1 (0.0 - 34.3)  

Female 745 24.6  (0.0 - 300.0)  34.1 17.1 (0.0 - 34.3)  

Location 

Metro 1220 24.1  (0.0 - 300.0)  32.9 17.1 (0.0 - 34.3)  

Rural 433 30.1  (0.0 - 300.0)  42.1 25.7 (0.0 - 38.6)  

Age 

5 to 9 718 17.4  (0.0 - 240.0)  23.8 17.1 (0.0 - 25.7)  

10 to 15 935 32.0  (0.0 - 300.0)  41.4 25.7 (0.0 - 42.9)  

SEIFA 

Lowest 303 22.6  (0.0 - 240.0)  38.3 12.9 (0.0 - 25.7)  

Lowest 288 20.3  (0.0 - 300.0)  35.3 12.9 (0.0 - 25.7)  

Middle 309 20.1  (0.0 - 300.0)  29.3 17.1 (0.0 - 25.7)  

High 323 29.3  (0.0 - 300.0)  35.4 25.7 (8.6 - 38.6)  

Highest 426 32.8  (0.0 - 300.0)  36.8 25.7 (8.6 - 42.9)  
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Figure 56: Proportion of South Australian children aged 5-15 years reporting time spent in 
organised sport per day, July 2002 - March 2018 

 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

  



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  157 

Indicator: Sufficient sleep 

Measure: Sleep duration - Proportion of adults, adolescents and children meeting sleep 

duration guidelines (based on the US National Sleep Foundation 2015 guidelines, used by the 

Australian Sleep Health Foundation) 

? 63.2% of South Australian adults met sleep duration guideline in 2016-18. 

? More proportion of people in higher SEIFA groups (less disadvantaged) met the sleep duration 

guidelines. 

? 75.0% of South Australian children aged 2-17 years met sleep duration guidelines in 2016-18. 

 

Table 122: Sleep duration recommendations, the US Sleep Foundation, 2015 

Age group Recommended 

Newborns (0-3 months) Sleep range narrowed to 14-17 hours each day 
(previously it was 12-18) 

Infants (4-11 months) Sleep range widened two hours to 12-15 hours 
(previously it was 14-15) 

Toddlers (1-2 years) Sleep range widened by one hour to 11-14 hours 
(previously it was 12-14) 

Preschoolers (3-5) Sleep range widened by one hour to 10-13 hours 
(previously it was 11-13) 

School age children (6-13) Sleep range widened by one hour to 9-11 hours 
(previously it was 10-11) 

Teenagers (14-17) Sleep range widened by one hour to 8-10 hours 
(previously it was 8.5-9.5) 

Younger adults (18-25) Sleep range is 7-9 hours (new age category) 

Adults (26-64) Sleep range did not change and remains 7-9 hours 

Older adults (65+) Sleep range is 7-8 hours (new age category) 

Source: The US Sleep Foundation Sleep Duration Recommendations 2015 [83] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  158 

Table 123: Proportion of South Australian adults aged 18 years and over meeting US National 
Sleep Foundation 2015 guidelines, July 2016   March 2018 

Adults (18 years and over) n/N % 95% CI 

All 6125/9689 63.2 (62.3-64.2) 

Male 3022/4685 64.5 (63.1-65.9) 

Female 3103/5003 62.0 (60.7-63.4) 

Location 

Metro 4349/6950 62.6 (61.4-63.7) 

Rural 1777/2738 64.9 (63.1-66.7) 

Age 

18-29 1509/1962 76.9 (75.0-78.7) 

30-49 1947/3085 63.1 (61.4-64.8) 

50-69 1910/3199 59.7 (58.0-61.4) 

70 years and over 760/1442 52.7 (50.1-55.3) 

SEIFA 

Lowest 1154/1965 58.7 (56.5-60.9) 

Lowest 1091/1827 59.7 (57.5-61.9) 

Middle 1199/1918 62.5 (60.3-64.7) 

High 1215/1890 64.3 (62.1-66.4) 

Highest 1455/2063 70.5 (68.5-72.5) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Figure 57: Proportion of South Australian adults aged ?18 years meeting sleep duration 
guidelines, July 2002   March 2018 

 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  159 

Table 124: Proportion of South Australian children aged 2-17 years meeting sleep duration 
guidelines, July 2016   March 2018 

Children (2 to 17 
years) n/N % 95% CI 

All 1921/2561 75.0 (73.3-76.7) 

Male 997/1340 74.4 (72.0-76.7) 

Female 925/1221 75.7 (73.3-78.1) 

Location 

Metro 1387/1835 75.6 (73.6-77.5) 

Rural 535/726 73.6 (70.4-76.8) 

Age 

2 to 4 346/457 75.6 (71.6-79.5) 

5 to 9 569/723 78.7 (75.6-81.6) 

10 to 14 547/719 76.0 (72.9-79.1) 

15 to 17 460/663 69.5 (65.8-72.8) 

SEIFA 

Lowest 318/445 71.3 (67.1-75.5) 

Lowest 371/481 77.1 (73.2-80.7) 

Middle 349/501 69.5 (65.5-73.6) 

High 363/475 76.4 (72.5-80.1) 

Highest 514/651 78.9 (75.7-82.0) 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System. 

 

Figure 58: Proportion of South Australian children aged 2-17 years meeting sleep duration 
guidelines, July 2002   March 2018 

 
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  160 

Indicator: Cancer screening  

Measure: The proportion of South Australian residents (50-74 years old) who are invited to 

screen through the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) and who return a 

completed screening test within that period. 

? In 2015-16, 47% of South Australian residents (50-74 years old) who are invited to screen 

through the NBCSP between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 returned a completed 

screening test within that period or by 30 June 2017, and the participate rate was the highest 

among all states. [84]  

? There was no reliable denominator to estimate participation rate by Aboriginal status, therefore, 

no such data are available.  

 

Table 125: Participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (percentage), people 50-
74, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 

 Estimated participation rate (%) 

 2014-2015 2015-2016
 

Main language spoken at home   

English-speaking 39.8-42.0 42.6-46.1 

Non-English speaking 26.8-34.2 23.8-32.8 

Australia 38.9 40.9 

South Australia
 

45.8 47.0 

Note: Due to the  not stated  category was assumed to be  speaking English at home  in the analysis, the results are presented 
as a range, and details can be find in AIHW reports. 
Source: AIWH, National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: monitoring report 2017 &amp; 2018 [84, 85] 

 

Measure: Aged standardised participation rate for women (50-74 years old) for breast cancer 

screening at BreastScreen in the previous 2 years 

? The AIHW BreastScreen Australia Monitoring report 2017 &amp; 2018, report that the age-

standardised participation rate (age-standardised to the Australian population at 30 Jun 2001) for 

women 50-74 years old for breast cancer screening at BreastScreen in South Australia was 57.6 

and 58.8 per cent in 2014-15 and 2015-16 respectively, and was the highest in both time periods 

among all states (Table A1.3 in the reports). [86, 87]  

? Nationally, in 2015-2016, the screening rate for women age 50-74 years were 55.2% for English 

speaking clients and 49.6% for non-English speaking; and 39.1% for Aboriginal women and 

54.3% among non-Aboriginal women.  

? Breast screening participation rates were lowest among women living in very remote areas 

(44.1%), followed by residents of remote areas (53.2), and outer regional areas had the highest 

participation rate (56.9%).  Data were not delineated by state level, however, the SA Service 

monitors participation of women 50-69 years for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) 

backgrounds. For the most recent reporting period (2016/2017) 54.3% of CALD women 

participated in the program. It is difficult to compare this rate to the AIHW, but is serves as a 

guide.[88] For the same reference period, the overall participation rate among women 50-69 in 

South Australia was 59.7%.  

 

 

 



 
CPHO1618_Data Compendium_FINAL.docx  161 

Table 126: Participation in BreastScreen Australia (age-standardised rate), women 50-74, 2014-
2015 and 2015-2016 

BreastScreen Australia Age-standardized participation rate (%) 

 2014-2015 2015-2016
 

Main language spoken at home   

English-speaking 53.9 55.2 

Non-English speaking 48.1 49.6 

Indigenous status   

Indigenous 37.3 39.1 

Non-Indigenous 53.2 54.3 

Remoteness   

Major cities 51.8 53.3 

Inner regional 56.2 56.5 

Outer regional 57.2 56.9 

Remote 53.1 53.0 

Very remote 46.6 44.1 

Australia 53.2 54.3 

South Australia
 

57.6 58.8 
Results are age-standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001. [86] 
 Australia  and  South Australia  rates includes women with a  not stated  language or Indigenous status.  
Data for 2015-2016 are preliminary and subject to revision. 
Source: BreastScreen Australia monitoring report (2017 &amp; 2018) [86, 87] 

 

Measure: Aged standardised participation rate for women (20-69 years old) for the National 

Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the previous 2 years 

? The age-standardised participation rate for women aged 20-69 was 58.9% and 57.7% in 2014-15 

and 2015-16 respectively and was the highest in both time periods among all states (Table A1.3 

in the reports). [89, 90] 

 

Table 127: Participation in the National Cervical Screening Program (age-standardized rate), 
women 20-69, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 

National Cervical Screening 
Program 

Age-standardized participation rate (%) 

 2014-2015 2015-2016
 

Australia 56.9 56.0 

South Australia
 

58.9 57.7 
Age-standardised (AS) rates are the number of women screened as a proportion of the eligible female population and age-
standardised to the Australian population at 30 June 2001. 
Source: Cervical Screening in Australia 2018, and all data presented are preliminary and subject to AIHW revision. [89, 90] 

 

 

  



 
 

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- Substance use and associated harms among Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander South 

Australians. 2017, SA Health. 

100. South Australian Cancer Registry, Cancer in South Australia 2015 with projections to 2018. 

2018, South Australian Department for Health and Wellbeing: Adelaide. 

101. South Australian Cancer Registry, Cancer in South Australia 2014 with projections to 2017. 

2017, South Australian Department for Health and Ageing: Adelaide. 

102. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Dementia in Australia. 2012, AIHW. 









 
 

103. Brown, L., E. Hansnata, and H.A. La, Economic cost of dementia in Australia 2016-2056. 

2017, Alzheimer's Australia, IGPA, University of Canberra: Canberra. 

104. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Causes of Death, Australia, 2016. Cat. 3303.0. 2017, 

Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra. 

105. SA Dental Services (SADS), Prevalence of preventable dental caries. 2018, Government of 

South Australia. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For more information 

Knowledge Translation and Strategy Unit 

Prevention and Population Health Branch 

Department for Health and Wellbeing 

Email: Health.PrevandPopHealth@sa.gov.au   

www.sahealth.sa.gov.au 

      

  Department for Health and Aging, Government of South Australia. All rights reserved 




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