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August 2017

Pregnancy Outcome Unit,  
SA Health

Pregnancy 
Outcome

in South Australia
  2015



August 2017 
Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 
  SA Health

Address: 
Pregnancy Outcome (Statistics) Unit  
Epidemiology Branch  
SA Health, Government of South Australia  
Citi Centre Building  
11 Hindmarsh Square  
Adelaide 5000 
South Australia

Postal Address: 
Pregnancy Outcome (Statistics) Unit 
SA Health, Government of South Australia  
PO Box 6, Rundle Mall 
Adelaide 5000 
South Australia

Telephone: (08) 8226 6382 
Fax: (08) 8226 6672

Web: www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/pregnancyoutcomes

E-mail: Pregnancy.Stats@health.sa.gov.au

ISSN 0819-3835

Suggested citation: Scheil W, Jolly K, Scott J, Catcheside B, Sage L, Kennare R. Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015. 
Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health, Government of South Australia, 2017.



Pregnancy Outcome in  
South Australia 2015

Wendy Scheil
Kerry Jolly
Joan Scott

Judith Thompson
Leonie Sage

Robyn Kennare

August 2017

Pregnancy Outcome Unit 
SA Health



Staff
Wendy Scheil  Head/Senior Medical Consultant

Joan Scott  Senior Midwife

Leonie Sage  Senior Midwife, Abortion Statistics 

Maureen Fisher  Administrative Officer (retired February 2016)

Natalie Holland  Administrative Officer (commenced March 2016)

Judith Thompson  Administrative Officer

Kerry Jolly  Midwife

Robyn Kennare  Senior Midwife, Maternal, Perinatal &amp; Infant Mortality Committee

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank all midwives and nurses in South Australia who completed and submitted the Supplementary Birth 
Records on which the perinatal data collection is based. We thank them also for responding so efficiently to our queries.

We would also like to express our sincere thanks to the following:

 &gt; doctors who notified births with congenital abnormalities and those who notified terminations of pregnancy;

 &gt; the pathology departments of teaching hospitals for autopsy information;

 &gt; the Genetics and Molecular Pathology Directorate, Women s and Children s Hospital, for cytogenetics reports;

 &gt; the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Division for data and perinatal death certificates;

 &gt; the Coroner s Office for Coroner s findings and autopsy reports;

 &gt; Kevin Priest of the Health Statistics Unit for his assistance in programming and provision of perinatal data to the 
National Perinatal Statistics Unit and in data linkage;

 &gt; Kamalesh Venugopal, Britt Catcheside and Anh Minh Nguyen of the Health Statistics Unit for assistance with 
responding to data requests and in data linkage;

 &gt; Alison Scott, Diane Ovens, Shila Phopo and Greg Williams for assisting with data entry;

 &gt; Natalie Holland and Britt Catcheside for the graphics;  

 &gt; Fred Calabrese of the Epidemiology Branch for his assistance with the import of electronically transferred data from 
the Women s and Children s Hospital;

 &gt; Sharon Carthew, Corporate Data Collection Systems, SA Health for updating the maps; and

 &gt; Media and Communications Branch of SA Health for publication.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 2

Acknowledgements



Contents

Staff ..................................................................................................................................2

Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................2

Executive Summary .......................................................................................................10

1. Numbers and fertility rates ........................................................................................................................10

2. Place of birth ............................................................................................................................................10

3. Teenage women .......................................................................................................................................10

4. Older women and first time mothers ........................................................................................................10

5. Country of birth and race .........................................................................................................................10

6. Smoking during pregnancy and Body Mass Index .....................................................................................10

7. Antenatal care and length of stay .............................................................................................................11

8. Aboriginal women and babies ..................................................................................................................11

9. Procedures ...............................................................................................................................................11

10. Method of birth ......................................................................................................................................11

11. Multiple births ........................................................................................................................................11

12. Abortions ...............................................................................................................................................12

13. Perinatal mortality ..................................................................................................................................12

I. Introduction ................................................................................................................13

1. The Perinatal Statistics Collection ..............................................................................................................13

2. The Abortion Statistics Collection .............................................................................................................13

II. Mothers and Babies: Characteristics &amp; Outcomes ...................................................14

1. Place of residence of mother ....................................................................................................................14

2. Place of birth of baby ...............................................................................................................................15

3. Maternal and baby race ............................................................................................................................21

4. Maternal age ............................................................................................................................................22

5. Country of birth .......................................................................................................................................23

6. Marital status and type of patient .............................................................................................................25

7. Occupation of father and mother .............................................................................................................26

8. Previous pregnancy outcomes ...................................................................................................................27

9a. Gestation at first antenatal visit ...............................................................................................................28

9b. Body Mass Index (BMI) ............................................................................................................................28

9c. Antenatal visits .......................................................................................................................................29

9d. Type of antenatal care ............................................................................................................................29

10. Smoking .................................................................................................................................................30

11. Medical conditions .................................................................................................................................31

12. Obstetric complications ..........................................................................................................................31

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  3

Contents



13. Procedures performed in current pregnancy ............................................................................................32

14a. Onset of labour ....................................................................................................................................32

14b. Reasons for induction of labour ............................................................................................................33

15a. Presentation and method of birth .........................................................................................................34

15b. Reason for caesarean section ................................................................................................................36

16. Complications of labour and birth and perineal status after birth ............................................................37

17. Fetal monitoring during labour ...............................................................................................................38

18. Analgesia for labour and anaesthesia for birth ........................................................................................38

19. Postnatal length of stay of women .........................................................................................................39

20. Sex of baby ............................................................................................................................................40

21. Birthweight and gestation ......................................................................................................................40

22. Birth injuries ...........................................................................................................................................41

23. Treatment given in neonatal period .........................................................................................................41

24. Level of care utilised ...............................................................................................................................41

25. Length of stay of babies .........................................................................................................................42

26. Congenital anomalies .............................................................................................................................42

27. Multiple births ........................................................................................................................................43

28. Perinatal mortality ..................................................................................................................................45

29. Home births ...........................................................................................................................................47

30. Birthing unit births ..................................................................................................................................49

III. Terminations of Pregnancy ......................................................................................51

1. Numbers and rates ...................................................................................................................................51

2. Age of women .........................................................................................................................................52

3. Place of residence and place where termination performed .......................................................................54

4. The reason for termination .......................................................................................................................55

5. Gestation, method and complications .......................................................................................................55

6. Previous terminations. Total termination of pregnancy rate and total first termination of pregnancy rate ...57

IV. Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category ..................................................................59

V. Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators .......................................................67

1. Clinical indicators .....................................................................................................................................67

INDICATOR 1: Smoking in pregnancy  .......................................................................................................67

INDICATOR 2: Antenatal care in the first trimester for all women giving birth ............................................68

INDICATOR 3: Episiotomy for women having their first baby and giving birth vaginally ..............................68

INDICATOR 4: Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes for births at or after term ......................................68

INDICATOR 5: Induction of labour for selected primiparae ........................................................................69

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 4

Contents



INDICATOR 6: Caesarean section for selected primiparae ..........................................................................69

INDICATOR 7: Normal (non-instrumental) vaginal birth for selected primiparae .........................................69

INDICATOR 8: Instrumental vaginal birth for selected primiparae ...............................................................69

INDICATOR 9: General anaesthetic for women giving birth by caesarean section .......................................70

INDICATOR 10: Small babies among births at or after 40 weeks gestation ................................................70

2. Maternity performance indicators, hospitals with at least 550 births per year ............................................70

VI. Trends In Perinatal Statistics In South Australia, 1981-2015 .................................74

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia (SA), 1985   2015 .................................................................77

VII. Summary Statistics for 2015 ..................................................................................80

1. Number of births ..................................................................................................................................80

2. Place of birth ........................................................................................................................................80

3. Sex .......................................................................................................................................................80

4. Plurality and condition at birth ..............................................................................................................80

5. Race of women ....................................................................................................................................80

6. Obstetric interventions in 20,448 women who gave birth .....................................................................80

7. Low birthweight (&lt;2,500g) ...................................................................................................................81

8. Congenital anomalies ...........................................................................................................................81

9. Perinatal mortality rates (numbers of deaths in parentheses) .................................................................81

10. Terminations of pregnancy ..................................................................................................................81

References .....................................................................................................................82

Publications ...................................................................................................................83

Annual Reports .............................................................................................................................................83

Other reports/papers ....................................................................................................................................83

1. Birth defects .........................................................................................................................................83

2. Termination of pregnancy .....................................................................................................................86

3. Perinatal epidemiology..........................................................................................................................86

4. Perinatal mortality.................................................................................................................................89

5. Caesarean section .................................................................................................................................90

Appendix 1: Definitions ................................................................................................91

Appendix 2: 2015 Supplementary Birth Record Form .................................................95

Appendix 3: Congenital Abnormality Form ................................................................96

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  5

Contents



Tables
Table 1: Births and crude birth rate by ABS Statistical Geographical Boundaries (ASGS 2015) regions,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................14

Table 2: Total births notified in 2015, by place of birth and plurality, South Australia  ...................................15

Table 3: Hospital births by Perinatal Service Delineation, South Australia, 2015 ............................................18

Table 4: Hospital births in South Australia in 2015 by race and hospital ........................................................19

Table 5: Race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ...................................................................21

Table 6: Race and birthplace category of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..............................21

Table 7: Age and race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ......................................................22

Table 8: Age   specific fertility rates (ASFR), South Australia, 2015 ...............................................................23

Table 9: Country of birth, major groups, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..............................23

Table 10: Specified country of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .....................................24

Table 11: Marital status and age, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .........................................25

Table 12: Type of patient and marital status, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ........................25

Table 13: Occupation of father and mother, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .........................26

Table 14: Parity by race, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .......................................................27

Table 15: Previous pregnancy outcomes, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015  
(multigravidae only) .....................................................................................................................27

Table 16: Gestation at first antenatal visit, women who gave birth, by race, South Australia, 2015  ..............28

Table 17: BMI of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................28

Table 18: Antenatal visits by race, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ........................................29

Table 19: Type of antenatal care, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..........................................29

Table 20: Tobacco smoking status at first antenatal visit, non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women  
who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .........................................................................................30

Table 21: Average number of tobacco cigarettes smoked per day in the second half of pregnancy,  
non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .............................30

Table 22: Medical conditions in current pregnancy, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..............31

Table 23: Frequency of some obstetric complications, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..........31

Table 24: Procedures performed in current pregnancy, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .........32

Table 25: Onset of labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ....................................................32

Table 26: Method of induction of labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .............................32

Table 27: Augmentation of labour after spontaneous onset, women who gave birth,  
South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................33

Table 28: Method of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ...................................................34

Table 29: Method of birth by presentation, all births, South Australian 2015 ................................................35

Table 30: Method of birth in breech presentation, by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015 ....................35

Table 31: Frequency of some complications of labour and birth, women who gave birth,  
South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................37

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 6

Tables



Table 32: CTG performed during labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ..............................38

Table 33: Fetal scalp pH taken during labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .......................38

Table 34: Analgesia for labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 .............................................38

Table 35: Anaesthesia for birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ...........................................39

Table 36:  Postnatal length of stay by type of patient, women who gave birth in  
South Australian hospitals, 2015 ..................................................................................................39

Table 37:  Average postnatal length of stay by type of patient and type of birth, women who gave  
birth in South Australian hospitals, 2015 ......................................................................................39

Table 38: Sex of baby, all births, South Australia, 2015 .................................................................................40

Table 39: Birthweight distribution of all births, South Australia, 2015 ...........................................................40

Table 40: Birth injuries in 20,001 live births, South Australia, 2015 ...............................................................41

Table 41: Neonatal treatment given, all live births, South Australia, 2015 .....................................................41

Table 42: Level of nursery care utilised by birthweight, all live births, South Australia, 2015 ..........................41

Table 43: Length of stay of liveborn babies in hospital, South Australia, 2015 ..............................................42

Table 44: Selected congenital anomalies notified to the perinatal statistics collection 2005-2015,  
South Australia. ...........................................................................................................................43

Table 45: Birthweight by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015 ...............................................................44

Table 46: Gestation at birth by plurality all births, South Australia, 2015 ......................................................44

Table 47: Perinatal outcome by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015 .....................................................44

Table 48: Perinatal mortality by birthweight, all births, South Australia, 2015 ...............................................45

Table 49: Perinatal mortality by gestational age at birth, South Australia, 2015 ............................................46

Table 50: Perinatal mortality, South Australia, 2015 (all births of specified birthweight/gestation) .................47

Table 51: Perinatal mortality by race, all births, South Australia, 2015 ..........................................................47

Table 52: Planned home births by age of women, South Australia, 2015 ......................................................47

Table 53: Method of birth in planned home births, South Australia, 2015 ....................................................48

Table 54: Birthweight distribution of planned home births, South Australia, 2015 ........................................48

Table 55: Perinatal outcome in planned home births, South Australia, 2015 .................................................48

Table 56: Planned birthing unit births by age of women, South Australia, 2015 ...........................................49

Table 57: Method of birth in planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015 ..........................................49

Table 58: Birthweight distribution of planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015 ..............................50

Table 59: Perinatal outcome in planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015 .......................................50

Table 60:  Number of pregnancy terminations, and rate per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years,  
South Australia, 1970-2015 .........................................................................................................51

Table 61: Terminations of pregnancy by age, South Australia, 2015 .............................................................52

Table 62: Termination of pregnancy and live birth rates and termination of pregnancy proportions by age, 
South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................53

Table 63: Terminations by place of residence, South Australia, 2015 .............................................................54

Table 64: Terminations by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ..............................................................54

Table 65:  Terminations by category of doctor, South Australia, 2015 ...........................................................55

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  7

Tables



Table 66: Reason for termination for fetal reasons, South Australia, 2015 ....................................................55

Table 67: Complications of termination procedures, South Australia, 2015 ...................................................56

Table 68: Complications by method of termination procedure, South Australia, 2014 ..................................56

Table 69: Women with previous terminations by age, South Australia, 2015 ................................................57

Table 70: Calculation of total induced abortion rate (TAR) for South Australia, 2015 ....................................57

Table 71: Calculation of total first induced abortion rate (TFAR) for South Australia, 2015 ............................58

Table 72:  Obstetric profiles by hospital category, South Australia, 2015: live births and  
stillbirths of ?400g or ?20 weeks gestation ..................................................................................61

Table 73: Socio-demographic aspects of perinatal statistics, South Australia, 1981 and 2006   2015 ...........75

Table 74: Obstetric aspects of perinatal statistics, South Australia, 1981 and 2006   2015 ...........................76

Figures
Figure 1: South Australian hospitals with obstetric beds in 2015  .................................................................16

Figure 2: Hospitals with obstetric beds, Central Region of South Australia, 2015  .........................................17

Figure 3: Distribution of hospital births by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ......................................18

Figure 4: Age and race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ....................................................22

Figure 5: Reasons for induction of labour, South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................33

Figure 6: Method of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 ...................................................34

Figure 7: Reason for caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 .....................................................................36

Figure 8: Reason for elective caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 .........................................................36

Figure 9: Reason for emergency caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 ....................................................37

Figure 10: Perinatal mortality rate by birthweight, all births, South Australia, 2015.......................................46

Figure 11: Pregnancy termination rate per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, South Australia, 1970-2015 .....51

Figure 12: Termination of pregnancy and live births by age, South Australia, 2015 .......................................53

Figure 13: Teenage pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and birth rates, South Australia, 1970-2015 .........54

Figure 14: Percentage of Aboriginal women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ..............................62

Figure 15: Percentage of women with &lt;7 antenatal visits by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ..........62

Figure 16: Percentage of teenage women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 .................................62

Figure 17: Percentage of women 35 years or more by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ....................62

Figure 18: Percentage of single women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 .....................................63

Figure 19: Percentage of women with 4 or more prior livebirths by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................63

Figure 20: Percentage of women with 1 or more prior perinatal deaths by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................63

Figure 21: Percentage of women with obstetric complications by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................63

Figure 22: Percentage of women with complications during labour or birth by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................64

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 8

Figures



Figure 23: Percentage of women with induction of labour by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ........64

Figure 24: Percentage of women having epidural analgesia by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 .......64

Figure 25: Percentage of breech births by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ......................................64

Figure 26: Percentage of emergency caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ............65

Figure 27: Percentage of elective caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 .................65

Figure 28: Percentage of total caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ......................65

Figure 29: Percentage of births with birthweight below 2,500g by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................65

Figure 30: Percentage of births with gestation less than 37 weeks by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................66

Figure 31: Percentage of births with prolonged hospitalisation by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 ..66

Figure 32: Percentage of live births requiring neonatal intensive care by hospital category,  

South Australia, 2015 ..................................................................................................................66

Figure 33: Percentage of births with birth defects by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 .....................66

Figure 34: Induction of labour proportion for selected primiparae, South Australian hospitals  

with ?550 births per year, 2015 ...................................................................................................71

Figure 35: Caesarean section rate for selected primiparae, South Australian hospitals  

with ?550 births per year, 2015 ...................................................................................................72

Figure 36: VBAC: Proportion of women who had a vaginal birth following a previous primary (first)  

caesarean section and no intervening births, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births  
per year, 2015 .............................................................................................................................72

Figure 37: Proportion of selected primiparae with an intact perineum after a vaginal birth,  

South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015 ..........................................................72

Figure 38: TERM NICU: proportion of term babies admitted to NICU for reasons other than congenital 

abnormality, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015 ......................................73

Figure 39: SPMR (Standardized Perinatal Mortality Ratio) for all births, South Australian hospitals with  

?550 births per year, 2015 ...........................................................................................................73

Figure 40: SPMR (Standardized Perinatal Mortality Ratio) for all births, South Australian hospitals with  

?550 births per year, 2011-2015..................................................................................................73

Figure 41: Percentage of teenage women among women giving birth in South Australia, 1985-2015 ..........77

Figure 42: Percentage of women aged 35 years and over among women giving birth in  

South Australia, 1985-2015 .........................................................................................................77

Figure 43: Percentage of primiparous women aged 35 years and over in South Australia, 1985-2015 ..........77

Figure 44: Percentage of Aboriginal women and Asian women among women giving birth in  

South Australia, 1985-2015 .........................................................................................................78

Figure 45: Percentage of women never married and with no de facto partner among women  

giving birth in South Australia, 1985-2015 ...................................................................................78

Figure 46: Percentage of multiple births among births in South Australia, 1985-2015 ..................................78

Figure 47: Percentage of low birthweight babies among births in South Australian, 1985-2015 ...................79

Figure 48: South Australian standardised perinatal mortality ratio (SPMR), 1985-2015 .................................79

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  9

Figures



Executive Summary
This report on pregnancy outcomes in South Australia for 2015 provides statistics derived mainly from the South 
Australian perinatal statistics collection of births. These are compiled from notifications submitted by hospital and 
homebirth midwives and neonatal nurses. For a more complete picture of pregnancy outcome, some figures from 
the abortion statistics collection are also included. More statistics on abortions in the state in 2015 are available in 
the Annual Report of the Abortion Reporting Committee for the Year 2015. Comparisons of selected pregnancy 
characteristics and outcomes are provided for six different hospital categories in the state. Individual hospital reports 
(Pregnancy and Neonatal Care Bulletins) with these comparisons made in greater detail are provided to hospitals in 
the state with at least 100 births per year. Group reports are provided for hospitals with smaller numbers of births. 
Comparisons of maternity performance indicators are also provided for hospitals with at least 550 births per year.

1. Numbers and fertility rates
The number of births notified in South Australia in 2015 was 20,154, which is 595 less than the previous year. The 
number of women who gave birth was 19,818. The total fertility rate was 1.80 live births per woman, slightly lower 
than 2014 s rate of 1.83. Fertility rates decreased in the older age groups of 30 years and above, remaining highest in 
the 30-34 years age group, followed by the 25-29 years age group.

2. Place of birth
Compared to 2014, the numbers of births decreased at two metropolitan teaching hospitals and increased at one. 
Births decreased at four of the five metropolitan private hospitals and remained steady at one. 1,144women (5.8%) 
gave birth in birthing units in teaching hospitals and 95 (0.5%) had planned home births.

3. Teenage women
Five hundred and fifty five teenage women gave birth; accounting for 2.8% of women who gave birth. 437 teenage 
women had terminations of pregnancy, accounting for 9.8% of terminations. In 2015, the proportion of  known  
pregnancies terminated was 40% for teenagers compared with 18% for women of all ages. The teenage pregnancy 
rate declined in the 1970s and 1980s before increasing in the early 1990s and declining again after 1996. The 
teenage pregnancy rate in 2015 of 19.4 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years was the lowest recorded since 1970.

4. Older women and first time mothers
The proportion of women aged 35 years or more increased from 4.6% in 1981 to a high of 21.1% in 2009 and was 
20.3% in 2015. Among first time mothers, this proportion increased from 1.2% to 12.8% in 2009 and was 12.5% 
in 2015.  The mean age of women giving birth increased from 26.6 years in 1981 to 30.1 years in 2015. For first time 
mothers it increased from 24.4 years to 28.5 years over the same period. As in the previous decade, more women 
gave birth in the 30-34 years age group than in the 25-29 years age group. 

5. Country of birth and race
Seventy-four percent of women who gave birth in 2015 were Australian-born.  Of women born overseas who gave 
birth, the largest proportions came from India (4.7% of women), the United Kingdom and Ireland (2.3%), China 
(2.4%), the Philippines (1.4%), Vietnam (1.2%), Afghanistan (0.9%), New Zealand (0.8%), Pakistan and Sudan (each 
0.7%), Malaysia (0.6%) and Cambodia and Nepal (each 0.4%). Of the women who gave birth in the state in 2015, 
13.7% (2,716 women) were Asian, compared with 2% in 1981. They gave birth mainly in teaching hospitals.

6. Smoking during pregnancy and Body Mass Index
The proportion of women smoking at the first antenatal visit has declined steadily from 25% in 1998 to 10.1% in 
2015. Additionally 2.8% of women had quit smoking before the first antenatal visit.

Statistics on Body Mass Index were available for 86% of women who gave birth in 2015, a vast improvement from 
42% in 2007. They indicated that 45% of all women giving birth were overweight, including 13.8% classified as 
obese and 3.8% severely or morbidly obese.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 10

Executive Summary



7. Antenatal care and length of stay
Week of gestation at the first antenatal visit was reported for 95% of women who gave birth. Seventy-eight percent 
of these women attended antenatal care within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy while ninety-nine percent of women 
attended at least one antenatal visit. Of those women for whom the number of antenatal visits was reported, 90% of 
women attended seven or more antenatal visits. Although many women had more than one type of antenatal care, 
the most common types used were hospital clinics (43.7%), obstetricians in private practice (25.5%) and general 
practitioners (21.2%). The median length of stay of women after a birth was two days; it was two days for those who 
had a vaginal birth and three days for those who had a caesarean section. Amongst private patients, median length of 
stay was three days longer for vaginal births and two days longer for caesarean births.

8. Aboriginal women and babies
Seven hundred and eighteen Aboriginal women gave birth in South Australia in 2015, accounting for 3.6% of all 
women who gave birth in the state. Fifteen percent of Aboriginal women were teenagers (compared with 2.3% 
of non-Aboriginal women). Of the Aboriginal women for whom week of gestation at the first antenatal visit was 
reported, 56.5% attended for antenatal care within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy (compared with 79% of non-
Aboriginal women). Of the Aboriginal women for whom the number of antenatal visits was reported, 74.2% 
attended at least seven antenatal visits during pregnancy (compared with 91.7% of non-Aboriginal women).  In 2015, 
at the first antenatal visit, 42.6 % of Aboriginal women reported that they smoked, a decrease from 44.4% in 2014, 
while in non-Aboriginal women this proportion was 8.7%. In 2015, the proportion of preterm births (&lt;37 weeks 
gestation) was 18.8% among babies of Aboriginal women compared with 9.4% among babies of non-Aboriginal 
women. Among live born babies (excluding terminations of pregnancy), the proportions of low birthweight babies 
(&lt;2,500g) were 14.2% and 6.8% respectively. The perinatal mortality rate of babies of Aboriginal women was 13.7 
per 1,000 births in 2015 compared with 9.0 per 1,000 births for births to non-Aboriginal women. 

For the first time in 2012, the Indigenous status of the baby was also collected independently of the mother. There 
were 1001 Indigenous babies, representing 5% of all babies born in 2015. They comprised 969 (96.8%) Aboriginal,  
14 (1.4%) Torres Strait Islander and 18 (1.8%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.

9. Procedures
Ninety-eight percent of women who gave birth had an ultrasound examination; 32.5% had labour induced while 
another 17% had spontaneous labour augmented; epidurals were used for pain relief during labour for 31.1% of 
women, and 14.3% had an episiotomy (21.9% of women who gave birth vaginally). The main reasons for induction 
of labour were prolonged pregnancy (16.1%), hypertension (13.6%), diabetes or gestational diabetes (10.7%), poor 
fetal growth (8.5%) and premature rupture of membranes (9.2%). Forty-seven percent of inductions of labour were 
performed for other than defined indications.  

10. Method of birth
Fifty-three percent of women had normal spontaneous vaginal births, 5.9% by ventouse and another 5.6% by 
forceps (compared with 1% and 15% respectively in 1981, when reporting first began). In 2015 the proportion of 
women giving birth by caesarean section was 35%, a proportion that has been relatively stable for several years. Of 
those who had previously given birth, 27.2% had previously had a caesarean section. Only 15.7% of women had a 
vaginal birth following a previous first caesarean without intervening births, compared with 30% in 1998, when this 
was first reported. The main reasons given for caesarean section were previous caesarean section (38.3%) failure to 
progress in labour or cephalopelvic disproportion (25.7%), fetal distress (13.7%) and malpresentation (9.2%). 

11. Multiple births
In 2015 multiple births accounted 3.3% of births while women with twins or triplets accounted for 1.7% of women 
who gave birth in 2015. These proportions increased in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of the use of assisted 
conception and the increasing proportion of older women (who have higher rates of multiple pregnancies than 
younger women) having children. The peak proportion of multiple births was recorded in 2002 and 2003 (3.6%).  
The subsequent decline in the proportion of multiple births was probably related to the increasing use of single 
embryo transfer in assisted conception practice.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  11

Executive Summary



12. Abortions
There were 4,439 terminations of pregnancy recorded, 211 fewer than in 2014. The induced abortion rate was 
13.5 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, compared with 13.8 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2014. The 
rate remained relatively stable from 2005 (15.3) until 2011 (15.5) and has since continued to decline. Approximately 
97% of terminations were performed in metropolitan public hospitals, including the Pregnancy Advisory Centre, and 
78.8% were performed by doctors in family advisory clinics in these hospitals. Ninety-two percent of terminations 
were performed within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy and 2% (90) were performed at or after 20 weeks gestation. 
Of terminations performed at or after 20 weeks gestation; 55.6% were for fetal reasons. Approximately 18% of 
reported pregnancies ended as terminations in 2015.

13. Perinatal mortality
The perinatal mortality rate for all births in 2015 was 9.3 per 1,000 births, the stillbirth rate 7.6 per 1,000 births and 
the neonatal mortality rate 1.7 per 1,000 live births. For international comparison, the World Health Organisation 
recommends including only stillbirths of at least 1,000g birthweight (or 28 weeks gestation if birthweight unavailable) 
and early neonatal deaths within the first 7 days of life (instead of 28 days) in calculating the perinatal mortality rate. 
This rate for international comparison for South Australia for 2015 was 3.2 per 1,000 births, with an early neonatal 
mortality rate of 0.5 per 1,000 live births. 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 12

Executive Summary



I. Introduction
This report summarises the statistics for 2015 from the South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection and the  
South Australian Abortion Statistics Collection, both of which are held in the Pregnancy Outcome Unit. Definitions 
used by the Unit are provided in Appendix 1. Guidelines1 explaining these definitions are issued to all South Australian 
obstetric units to promote the uniform completion of forms.

1. The Perinatal Statistics Collection
This collection utilises notifications of births in South Australia made by hospital and homebirth midwives and hospital 
neonatal nurses on the Supplementary Birth Record form (SBR - Appendix 2). The SBRs are checked manually for 
completeness and data discrepancies and then go through a series of automated validation procedures during data 
entry.1 

Information on congenital abnormalities detected at birth or in the neonatal period (within 28 days of birth) is 
provided by doctors using the Congenital Abnormality Form (Appendix 3). Few statistics on birth defects are included 
in this report as these are reported annually by the South Australian Birth Defects Register at the Women s and 
Children s Hospital.2 The Register complements statistics on birth defects from the perinatal and abortion statistics 
collections with statistics on birth defects detected and notified after discharge from the birth hospital up to the 
child s fifth birthday. 

Perinatal data are provided under legislation, the South Australian Health Care Regulations 2008, Part 5 Pregnancy 
outcome data and statistics. The South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection includes all births occurring in South 
Australia, including those to women who normally reside interstate (mainly in New South Wales near the South 
Australian border and in the Northern Territory). Births of South Australian residents which occur in other states are 
not included. The perinatal data have been collected since 1981, but there have been changes in the data items 
collected over the years. 

Perinatal death certificates are obtained from the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Division, chromosome 
analysis reports from the Genetics and Molecular Pathology Directorate at Women s and Children s Hospital, autopsy 
reports from pathology departments and Coroner s autopsy reports and findings from the Coroner s Office. These are 
linked with the SBRs to provide more complete information on births and deaths. All maternal, perinatal and infant 
deaths in the state are reviewed by the Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality Committee and details of these are 
reported in the annual report of the Committee entitled  Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in South Australia 
2015. 3 

2. The Abortion Statistics Collection
Notifications made by doctors of medical terminations of pregnancy under the Criminal Law Consolidation (Medical 
Termination of Pregnancy) Regulations 2012, are included in this collection. This Collection commenced in 1970, 
when specific abortion legislation was introduced under the Criminal Law Consolidation Act. Termination of 
pregnancy became legal in the state if performed in a prescribed hospital by a medical practitioner for a woman 
who has been resident at least two months in the state. The practitioner and another medical practitioner must have 
examined the woman and formed the opinion that the continuation of the pregnancy would involve greater risk to 
her life or greater risk of injury to her physical or mental health than if the pregnancy were terminated; or that there 
is a substantial risk that if the pregnancy were not terminated and the child were born, the child would suffer from 
such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped. A termination may not be performed on a 
woman who is pregnant with a child  capable of being born alive  unless it is performed to save the woman s life. 
The legislation states that evidence that a woman has been pregnant for a period of 28 weeks or more is prima facie 
proof that she was pregnant with a child that was capable of being born alive. 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  13

Introduction



II. Mothers and Babies: Characteristics &amp; Outcomes
The births in 2015 in South Australia described in this report include live births, stillbirths and terminations of 
pregnancy of at least 400g birthweight or 20 weeks gestation. Fifty-eight births of less than 400g birthweight have 
been included, consisting of 48 stillbirths and 10 live births. The 10 live births were born at 20-28 weeks gestation 
and eight died in the neonatal period. SBRs were received for all 20,154 births reported by hospital and home birth 
midwives in their monthly notification lists. These comprised 20,001 live births and 153 stillbirths. The number of 
women who gave birth was 19,818 (630 fewer women than in 2014). Findings relating to Aboriginal women and 
babies in the text of this report have been italicised for easy identification, in accordance with the request of the 
Aboriginal Health Council of South Australia.

1. Place of residence of mother
This table uses the ABS Statistical Geographical Boundaries (ASGS 2015), with SA4 boundaries for the four Adelaide 
Metropolitan Regions, and SA3 boundaries to present the nine non-metropolitan components in South Australia.  
The distribution of births according to the mother s place of residence by these Regions is provided in Table 1 together 
with the estimated resident population and crude birth rate. The crude birth rate in 2015 for South Australia was  
11.8 per 1,000 population. It was lowest in Fleurieu- Kangaroo Island and highest in the Adelaide -North Region and 
was also high in Eyre Peninsula, South West, and Outback   North and East Regions.

Table 1: Births and crude birth rate by ABS Statistical Geographical Boundaries (ASGS 2015) regions,  
South Australia, 2015

ASGS 2015 
(Mother s residence)

Total births Live births
Estimated resident 
population, June 

30, 2015*
Crude birth 

rate per 1,000 
population

Number Percent Number Number

Adelaide - Central and Hills 2,872 14.3 2,855 298,444 9.6

Adelaide - North 6,133 30.4 6,078 423,588 14.3

Adelaide - South 4,300 21.3 4,265 361,178 11.8

Adelaide - West 2,635 13.1 2,620 233,569 11.2

Barossa 336 1.7 334 34,924 9.6

Lower North 249 1.2 247 22,632 10.9

Mid North 278 1.4 278 27,273 10.2

Yorke Peninsula 238 1.2 234 25,162 9.3

Eyre Peninsula and South West 731 3.6 724 58,694 12.3

Outback - North and East 362 1.8 362 29,413 12.3

Fleurieu - Kangaroo Island 402 2.0 398 49,929 8.0

Limestone Coast 716 3.6 710 64,855 10.9

Murray and Mallee 761 3.8 759 68,999 11.0

Interstate 141 0.7 137  na

Total 20,154 100.0 20,001 1,698,660 11.8

* Australian Bureau of Statistics. Population estimates by age and sex, South Australia, 2015. Canberra: ABS, 2015  (Catalogue No 3235.0).   
na: not applicable  

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 14

Mothers and Babies



2. Place of birth of baby
Of the 20,154 births in 2015, 100 (0.5%) were home births and of those, 95 were planned homebirths. The 
remaining 20,054 births occurred in hospitals or in 85 cases, before arrival at hospitals into which the women  
had been booked. These 85  Born Before Arrival (BBA) births have been included in the statistics for those hospitals. 
The distribution of births by place of birth (home or hospital) and plurality is provided in Table 2. Locations of  
South Australian hospitals with obstetric beds in 2015 are provided in Figures 1 and 2.

Table 2: Total births notified in 2015, by place of birth and plurality, South Australia 

Condition  
at birth

Home births Hospital births
Total

Singleton Twin Singleton Twin Triplet

Live birth 97 2 19,257 628 17 20,001

Stillbirth 1 0 133 18 1 153

Total births 98 2 19,390 646 18 20,154

Of the 20,054 hospital births, 81.6% occurred in metropolitan hospitals (teaching and private) and 18.4% in country 
hospitals. This distribution is summarised in Table 3 and Figure 3. Table 4 provides the numbers of births and women 
by race in individual hospitals. Metropolitan hospitals are listed in order of number of births and country hospitals in 
alphabetical order within their Perinatal Service Delineation and category of number of births. Fifty-eight percent of 
hospital births in South Australia in 2015 occurred in metropolitan teaching hospitals. Maternity and neonatal services 
at SA hospitals are delineated according to six levels of service, as defined in the policy,  Standards for Maternal and 
Neonatal Services in SA, 2010 .4  The Women s and Children s Hospital is defined as providing Level 5 maternity 
services and Level 6 neonatal services, as it provides a high risk pregnancy service and neonatal intensive care, but has 
no maternity intensive care facility on site. The Lyell McEwin Hospital provides Level 6 maternity services and Level 5 
neonatal services with maternity intensive care services and special care neonatal services. Flinders Medical Centre 
provides Level 6 maternity and neonatal services with both maternity and neonatal intensive care services. All the 
metropolitan private maternity hospitals have special care nurseries, as do Mt Gambier and Port Augusta hospitals. 

Compared with 2014, the total number of births remained stable overall at the three metropolitan teaching hospitals. 
The total number of births in metropolitan private hospitals decreased. Although numbers of births remained relatively 
stable at Flinders Private, there was a decrease in the numbers of births at Ashford, Burnside, Calvary and North 
Eastern Community Hospitals. 

The total number of births in country hospitals decreased. In the Level 4:4 country centres, there were decreased 
births at both Mount Gambier and Port Augusta. Decreases occurred at the majority of hospitals with more than 100 
births per year. Number of births remained stable at Riverland General Hospital (Berri), and increases were seen at 
Mount Barker, Murray Bridge and the Northern Yorke Peninsula Regional Health Service (Wallaroo). At smaller country 
centres with &lt;100 births per year, numbers increased at Ceduna, Kapunda and Lower North Health Centre (Clare).
Numbers remained relatively constant at Kangaroo Island, Mid North Health (Jamestown) and Waikerie. A decrease 
in birth numbers occurred at Barossa Health (Tanunda), Loxton, South Coast District (Victor Harbor) and Southern 
Flinders Health Service (Crystal Brook).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  15

Mothers and Babies



Figure 1: South Australian hospitals with obstetric beds in 2015 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 16

Mothers and Babies



Figure 2: Hospitals with obstetric beds, Central Region of South Australia, 2015 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  17

Mothers and Babies



Table 3: Hospital births by Perinatal Service Delineation, South Australia, 2015

Hospital category Number of births Percent hospital births

Metropolitan teaching 12,034 60.0

   Women s &amp; Children s Hospital   (W&amp;CH) (4,747) (23.7)

   Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) (3,654) (18.2)

   Lyell McEwin Hospital (LMH) (3,550) (18.1)

Metropolitan private 4,327 21.6

Country 3,693 18.4

   Level 4:4 (874) 4.4

   Level 3:3&gt;100 births  per annum (2,221) 11.1

   Level 3:3&lt;100 births per annum (590) 2.9

   Other Country (8) 0.0

Total 20,054 100.0

Figure 3: Distribution of hospital births by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 (n=20,054)

18.2% 60.0%

LMH

18.1%

FMC

b

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Percentage of hospital births

18.4%

21.6%

a Ashford 7.0%
b Burnside 5.2%
c Calvary 3.9%
d Flinders Private 2.4%
e North Eastern Community 3.1%

r Mt Gambier 2.8%
s Port Augusta 1.6%
t Gawler 2.4%
u Mount Barker 2.3%
v Port Lincoln 1.5%
w Murray Bridge 1.2%
x Whyalla 0.9%
y Other Country hospitals with &gt;100 births per year 2.8%
z Hospitals with &lt;100 births per year 2.9%

W&amp;CH

e

u v w

23.7%

a c

r s x y zt

d

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 18

Mothers and Babies



Table 4: Hospital births in South Australia in 2015 by race and hospital*

Hospital Caucasian Aboriginal Asian Other
Total 

births

Total number 
of women who 

gave birth

Metropolitan teaching

Women s &amp; Children s Hospital (W&amp;CH) 2,688 191 1,376 492 4,747 4,625

Lyell McEwin Hospital (LMH) 2,550 169 487 448 3,654 3,605

Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) 2,900 112 359 256 3,627 3,550

Noarlunga Health Service 2 0 0 0 2 2

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital (TQEH) 3 0 0 0 3 3

The Royal Adelaide Hospital 1 0 0 0 1 1

Total 8,144 472 2,222 1,196 12,034 11,786

Metropolitan private

Ashford 1,250 2 121 40 1,413 1,391

Burnside War Memorial (BWMH) 904 3 121 11 1,039 1,020

Calvary 695 4 67 11 777 766

Flinders Private 433 2 31 15 481 472

North Eastern Community (NECH) 561 1 40 15 617 606

Total 3,843 12 380 92 4,327 4,255

Country

Level 4:4* Country 

Mt. Gambier 501 7 29 17 554 548

Pt Augusta 203 94 6 17 320 312

Subtotal 704 101 35 34 874 860

Level 3:3* Country ?100 births

Gawler Health Service  465 12 5 5 487 487

Mt. Barker 435 8 14 4 461 461

Murray Bridge Soldiers' Memorial 179 23 25 16 243 243

Naracoorte 118 0 5 5 128 128

Northern Yorke Peninsula Regional 
Health Service (Wallaroo)

119 7 2 2 130 130

Pt. Lincoln 256 27 7 1 291 290

Pt. Pirie 122 10 3 6 141 141

Riverland Regional (Berri) 131 8 13 9 161 161

Whyalla 143 14 11 11 179 179

Subtotal 1,968 109 85 59 2,221 2,220

* Perinatal Service Delineation   see text for further explanation.

  This is a metropolitan hospital situated at the metropolitan/country boundary; it has the characteristics of a country hospital and has been included as such.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  19

Mothers and Babies



Table 4 continued

Hospital Caucasian Aboriginal Asian Other
Total 

births

Total number 
of women who 

gave birth 

Level 3:3* Country &lt;100 births

1-99 births per annum

Barossa Health (Tanunda Centre) 82 0 4 0 86 86

Ceduna 28 23 0 1 52 52

Kangaroo Island 32 0 1 0 33 33

Kapunda 45 1 1 0 47 47

Lower North Health Centre (Clare) 83 1 1 1 86 86

Loxton 69 1 1 2 73 73

Mid North Health (Jamestown) 40 3 3 0 46 46

South Coast District (Victor Harbor) 85 4 1 0 90 90

Southern Flinders Health Service 
(Crystal Brook)

30 1 1 1 33 33

Waikerie 41 1 0 2 44 44

Subtotal 535 35 13 7 590 590

Other Country

Balaklava 1 0 0 0 1 1

Cummins 1 0 0 0 1 1

Ernabella Clinic 0 1 0 0 1 1

Fregon 0 2 0 0 2 2

Mannum 1 0 0 0 1 1

Pt. Broughton District 1 0 0 0 1 1

Southern Yorke Peninsula (Yorketown) 1 0 0 0 1 1

Subtotal 5 3 0 0 8 8

Total (country) 3,212 248 133 100 3,693 3,678

Grand total 15,199 732 2,735 1,388 20,054 19,719

* Perinatal Service Delineation   see text for further explanation

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 20

Mothers and Babies



3. Maternal and baby race
The distribution of women who gave birth, by race is provided in Table 5 and also by category of birthplace in  
Table 6. In these tables and all others where distribution by race is shown,  Aboriginal  includes Aboriginal (703 
women), Torres Strait Islander (9 women) and those who are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (6 women). 
Aboriginal women accounted for 3.6% of women and gave birth mainly in metropolitan teaching hospitals and 
country hospitals. Asian women accounted for 13.7% of women, and gave birth mainly in metropolitan teaching 
hospitals, but 13.9% of these women gave birth in private hospitals.

For the first time in 2012, the Indigenous status of the baby was also collected independently of the mother. In 2015 
there were 1,001 Indigenous babies, representing 5.0% of all babies born. They comprised 969 (96.8%) Aboriginal, 
14 (1.4%) Torres Strait Islander and 18 (1.8%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.

Table 5: Race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Race Number of women % Women

Caucasian 15,014 75.8

Aboriginal 718 3.6

Asian 2,716 13.7

Other 1,370 6.9

Total 19,818 100.0

Table 6: Race and birthplace category of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Birthplace

Race of women

TotalCaucasian Aboriginal Asian Other

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Metropolitan 
teaching hospital

7,944 52.9 460 64.1 2,202 81.1 1,180 86.1 11,786 59.5

Metropolitan  
private hospital

3,777 25.2 11 1.5 377 13.9 90 6.6 4,255 21.5

Country hospital 3,199 21.3 247 34.4 133 4.9 99 7.2 3,678 18.6

Home 94 0.6 0 0.0 4 0.1 1 0.1 99 0.5

Total 15,014 (75.8) 718 (3.6) 2,716 (13.7) 1,370 (6.9) 19,818 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  21

Mothers and Babies



4. Maternal age
Among the five-year age groups, the largest number of women who gave birth was in the 30-34 years age group 
(Table 7). The proportion of women in this age group (35%) has exceeded that of the 25-29 years age group (28.7%) 
since 2001. Teenage women accounted for 2.8% of women who gave birth and women aged 35 years or more 
accounted for 20.4% (Table 7 and Figure 4). Aboriginal women were generally younger than non-Aboriginal women: 
15.2% were teenagers and only 7.8% were 35 years or older. Among Asian women, on the other hand, only 0.3% 
were teenagers but 22.9% were 35 years or older. 

The five year age-specific fertility rates increased only in the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups, when compared with 2014 
(Table 8). The rate was highest in the age group 30-34 years (123.5 per 1,000 women), followed by the 25-29 years 
age group (100.6per 1,000 women). The general fertility rate (see Appendix 1) was 61.0 per 1,000 women aged 15-
44 years, slightly increased when compared with 61.5 in 2014. The total fertility rate (see Appendix 1) was 1.80 live 
births per woman, which remains below replacement level (2.1).

Table 7: Age and race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Age  
(years)

Caucasian Aboriginal Asian Other Total

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

&lt;15 3 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0

15-19 406 2.7 109 15.2 9 0.3 28 2.0 552 2.8

20-24 2,005 13.4 234 32.6 163 6.0 215 15.7 2,617 13.2

25-29 4,295 28.6 198 27.6 763 28.1 428 31.2 5,684 28.7

30-34 5,205 34.7 121 16.9 1,159 42.7 445 32.5 6,930 35.0

35-39 2,506 16.7 48 6.7 535 19.7 215 15.7 3,304 16.7

40-44 546 3.6 8 1.1 84 3.1 35 2.6 673 3.4

45+ 48 0.3 0 0.0 3 0.1 4 0.3 55 0.3

Total 15,014 (75.8) 718 (3.6) 2,716 (13.7) 1,370 (6.9) 19,818 100.0

Figure 4: Age and race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (n=19,818)

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Caucasian 
n=15,014

Aboriginal
n=718

Asian
n=2,716

Other
n=1,370

Total
n=19,818

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

o
f 

w
o

m
en

14-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35+ Age (years)

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 22

Mothers and Babies



Table 8: Age   specific fertility rates (ASFR), South Australia, 2015

Age 
(years) Number of live births

Estimated resident  
female population*

Age-specific fertility rate per  
1,000 women (ASFR) 

&lt;15 3 na na

15-19 545 51,024 10.7

20-24 2,602 55,483 46.9

25-29 5,639 56,896 99.1

30-34 6,877 56,696 121.3

35-39 3,283 51,614 63.6

40-44 667 56,171 12.9

45+ 55   

Total 19,671 327,884 60.0

*   Australian Bureau of Statistics. Population Estimates by Age and Sex, South Australia 2015.Canberra: ABS, 2015 (Catalogue No 3235.0).

#    the number of live births and fertility rate for women aged 15-19 years include live births for younger ages, and the number and rate for women 
aged 40-44 years include live births for older ages, while the total number and  rate (general fertility rate) include all live births. Live births in this 
table exclude terminations of pregnancy. 

    Sum of 5-year ASFRs = 360.3 per 1,000 women. Total fertility rate = 360.3 x 5 = 1,801.5 live births per 1,000 women =1.80 live births per woman.

5. Country of birth
The distribution of women by country of birth is provided in Table 9 by major group, and in Table 10 by specified 
countries of birth that had 40 or more women who gave birth. Of the 25.7% of women born outside Australia, the 
largest proportion was born in India (4.7% of women). Other countries contributing relatively large proportions of 
migrant women were China (2.4%), United Kingdom and Ireland (2.3%), the Philippines (1.4%), Vietnam (1.2%) and 
Afghanistan 0.9%.

Table 9: Country of birth, major groups,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Country of birth Number %

1 Oceania and Antarctica 14,715 74.3

2 Europe and the USSR 888 4.5

3 The Middle East and North Africa 445 2.2

4 Southeast Asia 936 4.7

5 Northeast Asia 666 3.4

6 Southern Asia 1,526 7.7

7 Northern America 110 .6

8 South America, Central America and the Caribbean 104 .5

9 Africa (excluding North Africa) 428 2.2

Unknown - 0.0

Total 19,818 100.0

* Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Standard Classification of Countries for Social Statistics (ASCCSS).  Canberra: ABS, 1990 (Catalogue No 
1269.0).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  23

Mothers and Babies



Table 10: Specified country of birth,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Specified country of birth Number % of women % of migrant women who gave birth (n=5,279)

1100 Australia 14,532 73.3  

6104 India 936 4.7 17.7

5101 China 478 2.4 9.0

2101 UK/Ireland 457 2.3 8.6

4107 Philippines 271 1.4 5.1

4110 Vietnam 239 1.2 4.5

6101 Afghanistan 181 0.9 3.4

1301 New Zealand 152 0.8 2.9

6107 Pakistan 139 0.7 2.6

3207 Sudan 134 0.7 2.5

4105 Malaysia 112 0.6 2.1

3103 Iran 108 0.5 2.0

9220 South Africa 99 0.5 1.9

6108 Sri Lanka 91 0.5 1.7

4109 Thailand 89 0.4 1.7

6106 Nepal 82 0.4 1.6

4102 Cambodia 72 0.4 1.4

7104 USA 70 0.4 1.3

6102 Bangladesh 69 0.3 1.3

5105 South Korea 67 0.3 1.3

4103 Indonesia 57 0.3 1.1

4106 Myanmar (Burma) 57 0.3 1.1

2305 Germany 54 0.3 1.0

2504 Poland 54 0.3 1.0

3104 Iraq 54 0.3 1.0

9106 Congo 53 0.3 1.0

3111 Saudi Arabia 42 0.2 0.8

5103 Japan 42 0.2 0.8

9114 Liberia 42 0.2 0.8

7102 Canada 40 0.2 0.8

 All other countries 945 4.8 17.9

Total 19,818 100.0 100.0

* ASCCSS, Australian Bureau of Statistics

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 24

Mothers and Babies



6. Marital status and type of patient
While 90.9% women who gave birth in 2015 were married or in a de facto relationship, 9% were single (7.8% were 
never married and 1.2% were widowed, separated or divorced, Table 11). Of never married women, almost a fifth 
were teenagers and a third were in their early twenties. Relatively more single women were hospital/public patients 
than married women and women in de facto relationships (92.4% v 72.7%, Table 12). 

Table 11: Marital status and age, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Age 
(years)

Marital status of women

TotalNever married Married/de facto
Widowed/ 

separated /divorced Unknown

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

&lt;20 277 17.9 277 1.5 0 0.0 1 5.0 555 2.8

20-24 498 32.1 2,080 11.5 34 14.8 5 25.0 2,617 13.2

25-29 360 23.2 5,251 29.1 70 30.4 3 15.0 5,684 28.7

30-34 249 16.1 6,609 36.7 64 27.8 8 40.0 6,930 35.0

35-39 125 8.1 3,128 17.4 48 20.9 3 15.0 3,304 16.7

40-44 38 2.5 622 3.5 13 5.7 0 0.0 673 3.4

45+ 2 0.1 52 0.3 1 0.4 0 0.0 55 0.3

Total 1,549 (7.8) 18,019 (90.9) 230 (1.2) 20 (0.1) 19,818 100.0

Table 12: Type of patient and marital status, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Type of  
patient

Marital status of women

TotalNever married Married/ de facto
Widowed/ 

separated/ divorced Unknown

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Hospital/
public

1,430 92.3 13,103 72.7 215 93.5 19 95.0 14,767 74.5

Private 119 7.7 4,916 27.3 15 6.5 1 5.0 5,051 25.5

Total 1,549 (7.8) 18,019 (90.9) 230 (1.2) 20 (0.1) 19,818 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  25

Mothers and Babies



7. Occupation of father and mother
This categorisation is based on the Australian Statistical Classification of Occupations (ASCO) of the Australian Bureau 
of Statistics and is provided in Table 13. Unclassified occupations have been assigned a separate category (Category 9). 

A much larger proportion of mothers than fathers (22.8 versus 0.4%) were included in the occupation  home duties . 
Larger proportions were also found for the groups of clerks and salespeople and personal service workers. More 
fathers were managers and administrators, tradespeople, plant and machine operators and labourers. Occupation was 
unknown for 10.2% of fathers and 3.5% of mothers.

Table 13: Occupation* of father and mother, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Occupation

Father Mother

Number % Number %

1 Managers and administrators 2,702 13.6 1,549 7.8

2 Professionals 3,215 16.2 3,510 17.7

3 Para professionals 1,175 5.9 1,486 7.5

4 Tradespersons 3,369 17.0 573 2.9

5 Clerks 470 2.4 1,904 9.6

6 Salespersons and personal service workers 1,159 5.8 2,939 14.8

7 Plant and machine operators and drivers 1,217 6.1 56 0.3

8 Labourers and related workers 2,272 11.5 513 2.6

9 Students 587 3.0 923 4.7

Pensioners 73 0.4 34 0.2

Home duties 84 0.4 4,515 22.8

Unemployed 1,060 5.3 866 4.4

Other 416 2.1 247 1.2

Unknown 2,019 10.2 703 3.5

Total 19,818 100.0 19,818 100.0

*  Australian Bureau of Statistics. ASCO. First Edition. Occupation Definitions. Canberra: ABS,1990. (Catalogue No. 1223.0).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 26

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8. Previous pregnancy outcomes
Forty-two percent of women had no previous birth and 30.4% were pregnant for the first time. Among Aboriginal 
women and those of  other  races, these proportions were lower, with 34.5% and 33.7% respectively giving birth for 
the first time. The proportion of women giving birth for the first time was the highest among Asian women (49.3%). 

The proportion of women of parity 4 or greater was much higher among Aboriginal women (12%) and women of 
 other  races (10.3%), than among Caucasian women (2.7%) and Asian women (0.9%) (Table 14).

Table 14: Parity by race, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Parity

Race of women

TotalCaucasian Aboriginal Asian Other

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

0-primigravida 4,517 30.1 181 25.2 975 35.9 350 25.5 6,023 30.4

0-multigravida 1,656 11.0 67 9.3 364 13.4 113 8.2 2,200 11.1

1 5,521 36.8 193 26.9 1,043 38.4 436 31.8 7,193 36.3

2 2,218 14.8 114 15.9 252 9.3 215 15.7 2,799 14.1

3 700 4.7 77 10.7 57 2.1 115 8.4 949 4.8

4 244 1.6 43 6.0 16 0.6 62 4.5 365 1.8

?5 158 1.1 43 6.0 9 0.3 79 5.8 289 1.5

Total 15,014 (75.8) 718 (3.6) 2,716 (13.7) 1,370 (6.9) 19,818 100.0

Among women with previous pregnancies (multigravid women), the proportions who had had previous specified 
adverse pregnancy outcomes are shown in Table 15. Just over a third of the women had a previous miscarriage and a 
fifth a termination of pregnancy.

Table 15: Previous pregnancy outcomes, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (multigravidae only, 
n= 13,795)

Previous pregnancy outcome Number %

Miscarriage 4,854 35.2

Termination of pregnancy 2,712 19.7

Stillbirth 191 1.4

Neonatal death 97 0.7

Ectopic pregnancy 321 2.3

Of the 11,595 women who had previously given birth, 3,748 (32.3%) had a previous caesarean section.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  27

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9a. Gestation at first antenatal visit
In 2015 gestation at the first antenatal visit was reported as  unknown  for 5% of women (Table 16). If these women 
with an unknown number of visits are excluded, among the remaining women, 78.2% attended within the first 14 
weeks. This proportion was much lower for Aboriginal women (56.5%) than for non-Aboriginal women (79%).

Table 16: Gestation at first antenatal visit, women who gave birth, by race, South Australia, 2015 (n=19,818)

Gestation 
at first 
antenatal 
visit

Race of women

TotalNon-Aboriginal Aboriginal

Number %

Adjusted % 
(excluding 

 unknown ) 
(n=18,667)

Number %

Adjusted % 
(excluding 

 unknown ) 
(n=662)

Number %

Adjusted % 
(excluding 

 unknown ) 
(n=19,329)

&lt;14 weeks 
gestation

14,340 75.1 79.0 377 52.5 56.5 14,717 74.3 78.2

14 weeks or 
greater*

3,811 20.0 21.0 290 40.4 43.5 4,101 20.7 21.8

Unknown 949 5.0 51 7.1 1,000 5.0

Total 19,100 96.4 100.0 718 3.6 100.0 19,818 100.0 100.0

*includes 51 women with no antenatal care

 
9b. Body Mass Index (BMI)
Reported height and weight at the first antenatal visit were used to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI, see Appendix 
1) for women who gave birth. This was considered valid only for women who attended the first antenatal visit before 
20 weeks gestation. Among these 17,942 women (90.5% of all women who gave birth), height and weight were not 
reported for 947 women (5.3%). Therefore BMI could only be calculated for 16,995 women who gave birth in 2015 
(86%). Table 17 shows that 8,890 of these women recorded a BMI ? 25.0, 4,092 had a BMI ? 30.0, and 1,747 had a 
BMI ? 35.0.

Table 17: BMI of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

BMI 

(based on height and weight  
at first antenatal visit where gestation 
at first  antenatal visit was &lt;20 weeks)

Number %
Adjusted %  

(excluding  unknown ) 
(n=16,995)

&lt;18.5 (underweight) 461 2.6 2.7

18.5   24.9 (normal) 7,644 42.6 45.0

25.0   29.9 (overweight) 4,797 26.7 28.2

30.0   34.9 (obese) 2,346 13.1 13.8

35.0   39.9 (severely obese) 1,100 6.1 6.5

40 or more (morbidly obese) 647 3.6 3.8

Unknown 947 5.3

Total 17,942 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 28

Mothers and Babies



9c. Antenatal visits
Women who gave birth are grouped in Table 18 according to the number of reported antenatal visits: no visits, 1 - 6 
visits and 7 or more visits. However, for 4.4% of women (8.2% of Aboriginal women), the number of antenatal visits 
attended was not reported. If women for whom the number of antenatal visits was not reported are excluded, 25.8% 
of Aboriginal women compared with 8.3% of Caucasian women were reported to have made fewer than 7 visits. 
Among Asian women this proportion was 13.8%. A low frequency of antenatal visits may be taken, particularly in 
term births, as an indication of inadequate antenatal care. Although the exact number of antenatal visits was reported 
for 18,947 (95.6%) women, 19,767 (99.7%) women report having attended at least one antenatal visit.

Table 18: Antenatal visits by race, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Antenatal  
visits

Race of women

TotalCaucasian Aboriginal Asian Other

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

None 31 0.2 16 2.2 1 0.0 3 0.2 51 0.3

1-6 1,160 7.7 154 21.4 355 13.1 203 14.8 1,872 9.4

?7 13,199 87.9 489 68.1 2,230 82.1 1,106 80.7 17,024 85.9

Unknown 
number of 
visits 

624 4.2 59 8.2 130 4.8 58 4.2 871 4.4

Total 15,014 (75.8) 718 (3.6) 2,716 (13.7) 1,370 (6.9) 19,818 100.0

9d. Type of antenatal care
In 2012 the types of antenatal care collected were updated to better reflect current obstetric practice. Table 19 
shows that the main types of antenatal care used were Public hospital clinic (Specialist led) (43.7%), Obstetricians  +/- 
midwife in private practice (25.5%), General Practitioners and public hospital (shared care) (13.0%), Midwifery group 
practice at birth hospital (11.8%) and General Practice led (8.2%). Individual women may have used more than one 
type of antenatal care. There were 51 women (0.3%) who had no antenatal care

Table 19: Type of antenatal care, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (n = 19,818)

Type of care Number %

No care 51 0.3

Midwifery group practice at birth hospital 2,343 11.8

Birth Unit/Centre 1,082 5.5

Public clinic (Specialist led) 8,662 43.7

GP and public hospital (shared care) 2,570 13.0

GP led 1,629 8.2

Obstetrician +/- midwife in private practice 5,045 25.5

Eligible midwife in private practice 91 0.5

Aboriginal Family Birthing Program (includes metropolitan and rural 
locations)

138 0.7

Other 9 0.0

Not stated 13 0.1

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  29

Mothers and Babies



10. Smoking
Table 20 shows that 9.9% of all women were reported to be smokers at their first antenatal visit, and 2.5% had quit 
smoking before their first visit.  Smoking status was unknown for 0.8% of women. The proportion of all women 
smoking during pregnancy has been declining in the state, from 25% in 1998 to 9.9% in 2015. 

The proportion of Aboriginal women who reported that they smoked at the first antenatal visit was (42.6%) down 
slightly from 2014 (44.4%). However, this was considerably higher than non-Aboriginal women (8.7%). Additionally, 
5.0% of Aboriginal women reported that they quit smoking in pregnancy prior to their first antenatal visit, compared 
to 2.4% of non-Aboriginal women. 

The highest rates of smoking were among teenagers (26.8%) and women aged 20-24 years (18.3%). Smoking rates 
were high among all age groups of Aboriginal women varying from 45.9% among teenage women to 40.6% among 
those aged 20-24 years. 

In the second half of pregnancy (Table 21), 8.3% of women (1,654 women) were reported to be smokers and 0.2% 
(39 women) smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day, but the number of cigarettes smoked or whether the woman 
smoked in the second half of pregnancy was not known for 1.5% of women. In the second half of pregnancy, 36.5% 
of Aboriginal women smoked, compared with 7.3% of non-Aboriginal women. A higher proportion of Aboriginal 
women (0.8% compared with 0.2%) also smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day, but the number of cigarettes 
smoked was not known for 6.7% of Aboriginal women and 1.3% of non-Aboriginal women.

Table 20: Tobacco smoking status at first antenatal visit, non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave 
birth, South Australia, 2015

Smoking status

Non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Total

Number % Number % Number %

Smoker 1,657 8.7 306 42.6 1,963 9.9

Quit before 1st visit 463 2.4 36 5.0 499 2.5

Non-smoker 16,830 88.1 364 50.7 17,194 86.8

Unknown smoking status 150 0.8 12 1.7 162 0.8

Total 19,100 96.4 718 3.6 19,818 100.0

Table 21: Average number of tobacco cigarettes smoked per day in the second half of pregnancy,  
non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Average number of tobacco 
cigarettes smoked per day

Non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Total

Number % Number % Number %

None 17,466 91.4 408 56.8 17,874 90.2

Occasional (&lt;1) 41 0.2 5 0.7 46 0.2

1-10 1,039 5.4 212 29.5 1,251 6.3

11-20 279 1.5 39 5.4 318 1.6

21-30 27 0.1 6 0.8 33 0.2

31-40 5 0.0 0 0.0 5 0.0

41+ 1 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0

Unknown 242 1.3 48 6.7 290 1.5

Total 19,100 96.4 718 3.6 19,818 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 30

Mothers and Babies



11. Medical conditions
Medical conditions were recorded in the current pregnancy for 8,095 women (40.8%). The frequencies of specified 
medical conditions are provided in Table 22. Up to four conditions can be reported for each pregnancy.

Table 22: Medical conditions in current pregnancy, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Medical condition Number % of women (n = 19,818)

1 None 11,723 59.2

2 Anaemia 1,316 6.6

3 Urinary tract infection 379 1.9

4 Hypertension (pre-existing) 246 1.2

5 Diabetes (pre-existing) 168 0.8

6 Epilepsy 117 0.6

7 Asthma 1,424 7.2

8 Other 6,108 30.8

12. Obstetric complications
Obstetric complications were recorded for 8,707 women who gave birth (43.9%). The reported frequencies of the 
more common complications are presented in Table 23. Up to four complications can be reported for each pregnancy.

There were three maternal deaths notified to the Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality Committee in 2015.

Table 23: Frequency of some obstetric complications, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Obstetric complication Number % of women (n= 19,818)

No complication 11,111 56.1

Threatened miscarriage 181 0.9

Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) - Abruption 105 0.5

APH - Placenta praevia 109 0.6

APH   Other &amp; unknown causes 418 2.1

Pregnancy hypertension 1,379 7.0

Intrauterine growth restriction (suspected) 1,006 5.1

Gestational diabetes 2,065 10.4

Other complications (including 52 women with impaired 
glucose tolerance) 5,350 27.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  31

Mothers and Babies



13. Procedures performed in current pregnancy
In 2012 procedures performed in the current pregnancy that are collected on the Supplementary Birth Record 
were updated to better reflect current obstetric practice, and are presented in Table 24. At least one ultrasound 
examination was performed for 98.1% of women, amniocentesis for 1.8% and chorion villus sampling for 0.4%.

For a proportion of women, it was not known whether a specific procedure had been performed, eg 1.3% for a first 
trimester screen and 1.2% for a second trimester screen.  

Table 24: Procedures performed in current pregnancy, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Procedure
Yes No Unknown

Number % Number % Number %

First trimester anomaly screen  
(Ultrasound &amp; biochem) 14,162 71.5 5,393 27.2 263 1.3

Second trimester anomaly screen  
(biochem only) 2,701 13.6 16,887 85.2 230 1.2

Ultrasound dating scan 11,420 57.6 6,835 34.5 1,563 7.9

Ultrasound morphology scan 17,761 89.6 1,793 9.0 264 1.3

Other ultrasound scan 8,509 42.9 10,921 55.1 388 2.0

Amniocentesis 351 1.8 19,305 97.4 162 0.8

Chorion villus biopsy 85 0.4 19,568 98.7 165 0.8

Antenatal fetal blood sampling 14 0.1 19,641 99.1 163 0.8

Other surgical procedure 115 0.6 19,703 99.4 0 0.0

14a. Onset of labour
Labour occurred spontaneously in 47.9% of women who gave birth (Table 25).  It was induced in 32.5%, and the 
methods of induction used were artificial rupture of membranes (ARM) in 71.6% of inductions, prostaglandins in 
46.9% and oxytocics in 58.8% (Table 26).  Other  methods were used in 5.5% of inductions.  In many cases more 
than one method was used.

Table 25: Onset of labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Onset of labour Number %

Spontaneous 9,501 47.9

No labour   caesarean section 3,880 19.6

Induction 6,437 32.5

Total 19,818 100.0

Table 26: Method of induction of labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Method of induction Number % of women  (n =19,818)
% of inductions   

(n =6,437)

No induction 13,381 67.5

ARM 4,609 23.3 71.6

Oxytocics 3,782 19.1 58.8

Prostaglandins 3,022 15.2 46.9

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 32

Mothers and Babies



14b. Reasons for induction of labour
Up to two reasons could be provided for induction. These reasons for induction of labour are defined (see page 55) in 
 The Australian Council on Healthcare Standards Obstetrics Indicators - Clinical Indicator Users  Manual Version 5 for 
use in 2007 .

Figure 5 demonstrates that 16.1% of women were induced for prolonged pregnancy (41 or more completed weeks), 
13.6% for hypertension, 10.7% for diabetes (including gestational diabetes and glucose intolerance), 8.5% for 
intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 9.2% for premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Other defined reasons 
accounted for smaller proportions.  Other than defined reasons  accounted for 46.8%.

Figure 5: Reasons for induction of labour, South Australia, 2015 (n=6,437) 

The proportion of women giving birth who had labour augmented was 17.0%. Of the 9,501 women who went into 
spontaneous labour, augmentation was used for 3,367 (35.4%). Methods used in augmentation were artificial rupture 
of membranes (ARM) (74.1%), oxytocics (40.8%) and prostaglandins (1.0%). More than one method may be used. It 
should be noted that prostaglandins are not recommended by the manufacturers as a method of augmenting labour. 

Table 27: Augmentation of labour after spontaneous onset, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Method of augmentation Number % of women (n=19,818) % of augmentations (n=3,367)

Any augmentation 3,367 17.0  

1 ARM 2,494 12.6 74.1

2 Oxytocics 1,373 6.9 40.8

3 Prostaglandins 32 0.2 1.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Other

Prolonged pregnancy

Chorioamnionitis

Fetal death

Fetal distress

Isoimmunisation

IUGR

Hypertensive disorders

PROM

Diabetes*

Percentage

*includes diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and glucose intolerance

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  33

Mothers and Babies



15a. Presentation and method of birth
Of the women who gave birth, 53.1% had normal spontaneous vaginal births (Table 28 and Figure 6). Caesarean 
section was performed for 35% of women, with 17.2% of women having elective sections; forceps were utilised 
for 5.6%; ventouse for 5.9% and breech birth for the remaining 0.3%. The method of birth given for women who 
had multiple births is that for the first birth. The method of birth by presentation for all births is provided in Table 29. 
Breech presentation occurred in 4.5% of births and caesarean section was the method of birth for 90.2% of breech 
presentations. Caesarean section was utilised for 91.3% of breech presentations in singletons (Table 30). 

Table 28: Method of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Method of birth Number %

Normal spontaneous vaginal 10,527 53.1

Forceps 1,114 5.6

Assisted breech (no forceps) 12 0.1

Caesarean section (elective) 3,417 17.2

Caesarean section (emergency) 3,530 17.8

Ventouse 1,161 5.9

Breech extraction 2 0.0

Breech spontaneous 49 0.2

Assisted breech (with forceps for head) 6 0.0

Total 19,818 100.0

Figure 6: Method of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (n = 19,818)

Ventouse (5.9%)

Caesarean section (35%)
Normal
spontaneous
vaginal (53.1%)
 

 

Breech delivery (0.3%)
Forceps (5.6%)

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 34

Mothers and Babies



Table 29: Method of birth by presentation, all births, South Australian 2015 (n=20,154)

Method of 
birth

Presentation

TotalVertex Breech Other Unknown

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Normal 
spontaneous 10,511 55.3 0 0.0 53 27.9 16 29.6 10,580 52.5

Forceps 1,106 5.8 0 0.0 16 8.4 0 0.0 1,122 5.6

Assisted breech 
(no forceps) 0 0.0 17 1.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 17 0.1

Elective 
caesarean 2,994 15.8 502 55.0 32 16.8 12 22.2 3,540 17.6

Emergency 
caesarean 3,220 16.9 321 35.2 87 45.8 25 46.3 3,653 18.1

Ventouse 1,167 6.1 0 0.0 1 0.5 1 1.9 1,169 5.8

Breech  
extraction 0 0.0 5 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.0 6 0.0

Breech 
spontaneous 0 0.0 57 6.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 57 0.3

Assisted breech  
(forceps) 0 0.0 10 1.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 10 0.0

Total 18,998 (94.3) 912 (4.5) 190 (0.9) 54 (0.3) 20,154 100.0

Table 30: Method of birth in breech presentation, by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015 (n= 912)

Plurality Assisted* breech
Elective 

caesarean
Emergency 
caesarean

Breech 
extraction

Breech 
spontaneous

Assisted Breech 
(forceps) Total

Singleton 12 419 245 2 43 6 727

Twins 5 82 75 3 14 4 183

Triplets 0 1 1 0 0 0 2

Total 17 502 321 5 57 10 912

* in ten of the assisted breech births forceps were applied to the head.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  35

Mothers and Babies



15b. Reason for caesarean section
Up to two reasons may be provided on the Supplementary Birth Record for caesarean section, and these have been 
collated in Figure 7 (all caesarean sections), Figure 8 (elective caesarean sections only) and Figure 9 (emergency 
caesarean sections only). The main reasons given for all caesarean sections were previous caesarean section (38.3%), 
failure to progress/cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) (25.7%), fetal distress (13.7%) and malpresentation (11.4%). 
Maternal choice accounted for 2.6% (up from 1.5%in 2012 when it was first collected). The main reasons for elective 
sections were previous caesarean section (66.1%), malpresentation (13.6%), maternal choice (4.3%) and multiple 
pregnancy (3.0%). The main reasons given for emergency sections were failure to progress or CPD (49.8%), fetal 
distress (26.9%), previous caesarean section (11.5%), malpresentation (9.2%) and maternal choice (0.9%).  

Figure 7: Reason for caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 (n=6,947) 

Figure 8: Reason for elective caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 (n=3,417)

Maternal choice 

Intrauterine Growth
 Restriction (IUGR)

Multiple pregnancy 

Antepartum
 Haemorrhage (APH)

CPD/Failure to progress 

Malpresentation 

Fetal distress 

Previous caesarean 

Pregnancy hypertension/
hypertension

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

Percentage 

Other 

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

Other 

Maternal choice 

Intrauterine Growth 
Restriction (IUGR)

Multiple pregnancy 

Antepartum 
Haemorrhage (APH)

Pregnancy hypertension/
hypertension

Malpresentation 

Fetal distress 

Previous caesarean 

CPD 

Percentage 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 36

Mothers and Babies



Figure 9: Reason for emergency caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 (n=3,530)

16. Complications of labour and birth and perineal status after birth
Complications of labour or birth were recorded for 7,704 women who gave birth (38.9%).  Up to four complications 
can be recorded. The reported frequency of some complications is presented in Table 31. Among all 19,818 women 
who gave birth, episiotomy was performed for 2,830 (14.3%). Among the 12,871 women who gave birth vaginally, 
3,345 (26%) had an intact perineum after birth, 5,056 (39.3%) had a repair of a perineal tear, of whom 500 (3.9%) 
had a third or a fourth degree tear; 21.9% had an episiotomy. 

Table 31: Frequency of some complications of labour and birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Complication of labour Number of women % of women (n=19,818)

None 12,114 61.1

Post-partum haemorrhage 

      600-999ml 1,722 8.7

      1,000 ml or more 1,022 5.2

      amount not specified 2 0.0

Fetal distress 2,248 11.3

Retained placenta 205 1.0

Prolonged labour 146 0.7

Cord prolapse 28 0.1

Wound infection 14 0.1

Third degree tear (483) or fourth degree tear (17) 500 2.5

Failure to progress 2,617 13.2

Other 4,819 24.3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 

Other 

Maternal choice 

IUGR 

Multiple pregnancy 

APH 

Pregnancy hypertension/hypertension 

Malpresentation 

Fetal distress 

Previous caesarean 

CPD/Failure to progress 

Percentage 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  37

Mothers and Babies



17. Fetal monitoring during labour
Cardiotocography (CTG) was performed during labour for 63.2% of women who gave birth. The majority of these 
(50% of women) were external CTGs (Table 32) while a scalp clip was used for 13.2%. 

A fetal scalp pH was taken during labour in 229 women who gave birth (1.2%, Table 33).

Table 32: CTG performed during labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

CTG during labour Number of women % of women (n=19,818)

1 None 7,282 36.7

2 External 9,914 50.0

3 Scalp clip 2,622 13.2

Table 33: Fetal scalp pH taken during labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Fetal scalp pH taken Number of women % of women (n=19,818)

1 No 19,589 98.8

2 Yes 229 1.2

18. Analgesia for labour and anaesthesia for birth
These distributions are provided in Tables 34 and 35. Epidurals were used for analgesia in labour for 31.1% and for 
anaesthesia for birth for 27.4% of women. The proportion of women who had an epidural for either was 32.5% 
(6,436 women). The proportion of women who had a spinal anaesthetic increased between 1991 and 2015 from 
0.2% to 1.0% for analgesia and from 0.5% to 26% for anaesthesia. General anaesthesia was used for 1.9% of 
births. It was used in 5.1% of caesarean sections. Almost 38% of women who gave birth received none of the 
specified methods for analgesia during labour.

Table 34: Analgesia for labour,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Analgesia Number % of women

1 None 7,514 37.9

2 Nitrous oxide and oxygen 7,972 40.2

3 Narcotic (parenteral) 2,726 13.8

4 Epidural (lumbar/caudal) 6,163 31.1

5 Spinal 204 1.0

6 Other 571 2.9

7 Combined spinal-epidural 17 0.1

 * more than one method may be used for each woman

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 38

Mothers and Babies



Table 35: Anaesthesia for birth,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015

Anaesthesia Number % of women

1 None 7,501 37.8

2 Local anaesthesia 1,371 6.9

3 Pudendal 125 0.6

4 Epidural (lumbar/caudal) 5,430 27.4

5 Spinal 5,157 26.0

6 General anaesthesia 370 1.9

7 Other 189 1.0

8 Combined spinal-epidural 95 0.5

* more than one method may be used for each woman

19. Postnatal length of stay of women
The distribution of length of stay of women who gave birth in hospitals is presented in Table 36 for public and private 
patients. The median duration for all women was two days. It was two days for vaginal births and three days for 
caesarean section births (Table 37). 

The median duration of stay was three days longer for private patients for vaginal births and two days longer for 
caesarean births (four and five days respectively for private patients compared with one and three days respectively  
for public patients).

Table 36: Postnatal length of stay by type of patient, women who gave birth in South Australian hospitals, 2015

Postnatal length of 
stay (days)

Public Private Total

Number % Number % Number %

&lt;1 1,238 8.4 31 0.6 1,269 6.4

  1 4,085 27.8 79 1.6 4,164 21.1

  2 4,219 28.7 257 5.1 4,476 22.7

  3 3,064 20.9 595 11.8 3,659 18.6

  4 1,222 8.3 1,938 38.5 3,160 16.0

  5 503 3.4 1,576 31.3 2,079 10.5

  6 173 1.2 405 8.1 578 2.9

  7 or more 185 1.3 149 3.0 334 1.7

Total 14,689 100.0 5,030 100.0 19,719 100.0

Table 37: Average postnatal length of stay by type of patient and type of birth, women who gave birth in 
South Australian hospitals, 2015

Average 
length of stay

Public Private Total

Vaginal  
(n=9,972)

Caesarean 
(n=4,717)

Total  
(n=14,689)

Vaginal  
(n=2,800)

Caesarean 
(n=2,230)

Total  
(n=5,030)

Vaginal  
(n=12,772)

Caesarean 
(n=6,947)

Total  
(n=19,719)

Mean number 
of days

1.7 3.2 2.2 3.8 5.0 4.3 2.1 3.8 2.7

 ( SD) ( 1.29) ( 1.69) ( 1.60) ( 1.09) ( 1.71) ( 1.52) ( 1.52) ( 1.88) ( 1.83)

Median 
number of days

1.0 3.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 3.0 2.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  39

Mothers and Babies



20. Sex of baby
The sex distribution of babies is provided in Table 38; the male: female sex ratio was 1.05:1.

Table 38: Sex of baby, all births, South Australia, 2015

Sex of baby Number %

Male 10,320 51.2

Female 9,834 48.8

Total 20,154 100.0

21. Birthweight and gestation
The birthweight distribution of all births is presented in Table 39. The percentage of low birthweight babies (&lt;2,500g) 
was 7.6%, and that of very low birthweight babies (&lt;1,500g) was 1.6%. The mean birthweight was 3,311g (SD 
617.9g), with birthweights ranging from 145g to 5520g. The proportion of low birthweight babies was 14.8% 
among babies of Aboriginal women compared with 7.4% among babies of non-Aboriginal women. Among liveborn 
babies, and excluding terminations of pregnancy, these proportions were 14.2% and 6.8% respectively.

Table 39:  Birthweight distribution of all births, South Australia, 2015

Birthweight (g) Number of births Percentage of births

&lt;400 58 0.3

400-499 31 0.2

500-749 64 0.3

750-999 49 0.2

1,000-1,499 128 0.6

1,500-1,999 285 1.4

2,000-2,499 925 4.6

2,500-2,999 3,262 16.2

3,000-3,499 7,296 36.2

3,500-3,999 6,067 30.1

4,000-4,499 1,740 8.6

4,500+ 248 1.2

Unknown 1 0.0

Total 20,154 100.0

In 2015, 1,540 babies (7.6%) were of low birthweight and 1,940 (9.6%) were preterm (&lt;37 weeks gestation). The 
proportion of preterm births was 18.8% among babies of Aboriginal women compared with 9.4% among babies of 
non-Aboriginal women. 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 40

Mothers and Babies



22. Birth injuries
Birth injuries were reported in 195 live births (1.0%). The most common injury reported was cephalhaematoma. 
Fracture and nerve injury occurred less frequently (Table 40).

Table 40: Birth injuries* in 20,001 live births, South Australia, 2015

Birth injury Number of live births % of live births

None 19,806 99.0

Fracture 19 0.1

Dislocation 2 0.0

Nerve Injury 20 0.1

Cephalhaematoma 124 0.6

Other 36 0.2

*more than one injury may be reported for each birth

23. Treatment given in neonatal period
The proportions of live births who received specified treatments in the neonatal period are provided in Table 41, which 
shows that 83.6% of neonates did not receive any of these treatments.

Table 41: Neonatal treatment given, all live births, South Australia, 2015

Neonatal treatment Number % of live births

None of the treatments listed below 16,729 83.6

Oxygen therapy for more than 4 hours 852 4.3

Phototherapy for jaundice 1,163 5.8

Gavage feeding more than once 1,569 7.8

Any intravenous therapy 2,380 11.9

24. Level of care* utilised
Table 42 shows that 83% of neonates utilised Level 1 - 3 care only. Level 4 -5  care was used by 16.9% of neonates, 
Level 6 care at the Women s and Children s Hospital or Flinders Medical Centre by 2.9% and paediatric intensive care 
at the Women s and Children s Hospital by 0.2% of neonates. As would be expected, with decreasing birthweight, an 
increasing percentage of babies required Level 4 -5 and Level 6 care.

Table 42: Level of nursery care* utilised by birthweight, all live births, South Australia, 2015

Level of care utilised

Birthweight (g)

&lt;1,500 (n=218) 1,500-2,499 (n=1,195) 2,500+ (n=18,588) Total (n=20,001)

Number % Number % Number % Number %

Level I - 3 only 18 8.3 256 21.4 16,319 87.8 16,593 83.0

Level 4 - 5 195 89.4 938 78.5 2,254 12.1 3,387 16.9

Level 6 (W&amp;CH &amp; FMC) 189 86.7 166 13.9 217 1.2 572 2.9

Level 6 (W&amp;CH Paediatric 
intensive care) 5 2.3 9 0.8 30 0.2 44 0.2

*Standards for Maternal and Neonatal Services in South Australia 2010

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  41

Mothers and Babies



25. Length of stay of babies
Table 43 shows the distribution of length of stay of liveborn babies in hospital for preterm (&lt;37 weeks gestation) 
and term births (?37 weeks gestation). The mean duration of stay for all liveborn babies was 4.5 days (SD 9.9) and 
the median duration 3 days. The mean duration was 2.9 days (SD 2.96) for term births and 20.7 days (SD 26.6) for 
preterm births, while the median durations were 3 and 12 days respectively.

Table 43:  Length of stay of liveborn babies in hospital, South Australia, 2015

Length of stay (days)

Preterm births Term births Total

Number % Number % Number %

&lt;1 22 1.2 1,173 6.5 1,195 6.0

  1 32 1.8 3,815 21.1 3,847 19.3

  2 89 4.9 3,963 21.9 4,052 20.4

  3 111 6.1 3,333 18.4 3,444 17.3

  4 127 7.0 2,909 16.1 3,036 15.3

  5 111 6.1 1,947 10.8 2,058 10.3

  6 109 6.0 482 2.7 591 3.0

  7-13 364 20.1 357 2.0 721 3.6

  14-20 290 16.0 56 0.3 346 1.7

  21-27 168 9.3 27 0.1 195 1.0

  28 or more 386 21.3 31 0.2 417 2.1

Total 1,809 100.0 18,093 100.0 19,902 100.0

26. Congenital anomalies
Among the 20,154 births in 2015 there were 516 births (2.6%) notified with congenital anomalies, compared with an 
average of 2.5% over the past decade; 494 (2.5%) of these births had anomalies notified in the congenital anomalies 
range 74000-75999 of the British Paediatric Association (BPA) Classification of Diseases. This is a 5-digit extension of 
the 4-digit classification of the ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases. Manual of the International Statistical 
Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death, 1975 Revision. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1977). 
Table 44 includes births with the more readily identifiable defects used for international monitoring (sentinel defects) 
notified to the perinatal statistics collection in 2005-2015.

Terminations of pregnancy are not included in this table unless they meet a criterion for inclusion in the perinatal data 
collection, i.e. at least 400g birthweight or 20 weeks gestation. Notifications of births with birth defects identified 
after discharge from the hospital of birth but within the first five years of life are made to the South Australian Birth 
Defects Register at the Women s and Children s Hospital, and more complete statistics on birth defects in South 
Australia are available from the Register s Annual Report.2 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 42

Mothers and Babies



Table 44: Selected congenital anomalies notified to the perinatal statistics collection 2005-2015, South Australia.

Congenital 
abnormality Year

BPA* CODE 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Number of births = 18,196 18,803 19,757 19,970 19,901 20,002 20,344 20,666 20,263 20,749 20,154

74000-74029 Anencephalus 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 1

74100-74199 Spina bifida 8 5 4 18 11 6 4 7 6 6 9

74200-74209 Encephalocele 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 0

74230-74239 Hydrocephalus 10 12 11 14 4 9 11 13 12 12 10

74900-74909 Cleft palate 11 12 9 11 12 11 14 12 13 13 17

74910-74929 Cleft lip and 
palate (Total cleft lip)

16 30 28 25 18 13 14 14 16 16 14

75030-75038 Tracheo-
oesophageal fistula, 
oesophageal atresia and 
stenosis

4 12 5 6 3 6 5 7 8 8 10

75120-75124 Atresia and 
stenosis of large intestine, 
rectum and anal canal

4 7 9 7 9 10 5 8 5 5 2

75260-75261 Hypospadias 
and epispadias

29 41 40 39 44 43 38 44 42 42 32

75300-75301 Renal agenesis 
and dysgenesis

8 8 3 11 8 12 10 7 5 5 12

75520-75549 Limb reduction 
defects

13 18 9 8 13 8 15 17 10 10 10

75660-75669 Anomalies of 
diaphragm

12 7 9 9 6 5 1 8 8 8 4

75670-75679 Anomalies of 
abdominal wall

10 7 9 17 7 15 14 8 17 17 12

75800-75809 Down 
syndrome

17 17 21 22 14 16 19 14 15 15 13

* British Paediatric Association Classification of Diseases. London: The British Paediatric Association, 1979.

27. Multiple births
Among women who gave birth there were 324 twin and six triplet pregnancies compared with 19,488 singleton 
ones in 2015. Thus there was one twin pregnancy in every 61 pregnancies, one triplet pregnancy in every 3,303 
pregnancies among women who gave birth. Women who gave birth with twins and triplets comprised 1.7% of all 
women who gave birth. The total number of multiple births was 666 (3.3% of total births).

A comparison of multiple births with singletons shows that multiple births were of lower birthweight (with 59.6% 
being of low birthweight compared with 5.9% for singletons, Table 45), and gestation (with 69.4% being preterm 
births compared with 7.6% for singletons, Table 46). The proportion of live births in hospital at 28 days was 21.8% 
for multiple births compared with 1.4% for singletons. The perinatal death rate for multiple births was 34.5 compared 
with 8.5 deaths per 1,000 births for singletons, Table 47).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  43

Mothers and Babies



Table 45: Birthweight by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015

Birthweight (g)
Singleton births Multiple births

Number % Number %

&lt;400 49 0.3 9 1.4

400-499 28 0.1 3 0.5

500-749 54 0.3 10 1.5

750-999 34 0.2 15 2.3

1,000-1,499 81 0.4 47 7.1

1,500-1,999 177 0.9 108 16.2

2,000-2,499 720 3.7 205 30.8

2,500-2,999 3,061 15.7 201 30.2

3,000-3,499 7,234 37.1 62 9.3

3,500-3,999 6,062 31.1 5 0.8

4,000-4,499 1,740 8.9 0 0.0

4,500+ 248 1.3 0 0.0

Unknown 0 0.0 1 0.2

Total 19,488 100.0 666 100.0

Table 46: Gestation at birth by plurality all births, South Australia, 2015

Gestation (weeks)
Singleton births Multiple births Total

Number % Number % Number %

&lt;24 89 0.5 14 2.1 103 0.5

24-27 74 0.4 20 3.0 94 0.5

28-31 113 0.6 55 8.3 168 0.8

32-36 1,202 6.2 373 56.0 1,575 7.8

37-41 17,970 92.2 204 30.6 18,174 90.2

42+ 37 0.2 0 0.0 37 0.2

Unknown 3 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0

Total 19,488 100.0 666 100.0 20,154 100.0

Table 47: Perinatal outcome by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015

Perinatal outcome
Singleton births Multiple births Total

Number % Number % Number %

Stillbirth 134 0.7 19 2.9 153 0.8

Discharged within 28 days 19,049 97.7 498 74.8 19,547 97.0

In hospital at 28 days 274 1.4 145 21.8 419 2.1

Neonatal death 31 0.2 4 0.6 35 0.2

Total 19,488 100.0 666 100.0 20,154 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 44

Mothers and Babies



28. Perinatal mortality
High crude perinatal mortality rates were associated with low and high birthweight births (Table 48), low gestation 
births (Table 49) and multiple births (Table 47).7 The perinatal mortality rate for all births (livebirths of any gestation 
and stillbirths of at least 400g birthweight/20 weeks gestation) in 2015 was 9.3 per 1,000 births. The stillbirth rate 
was 7.6 per 1,000 births and the neonatal mortality rate was 1.7 per 1,000 live births. 

The relationship between perinatal mortality and birthweight is demonstrated in Table 48 and Figure 10. The highest 
perinatal mortality rate was observed for the lowest birthweight group weighing &lt;500g (943.8 per 1,000). The 
lowest perinatal mortality rate of 0.0 per 1,000 births was observed for the birthweight group of 4,000 4,499g. The 
perinatal mortality rate for the birthweight group 3,500-3,999 was 1.2 per 1,000 births, 1.5 per 1,000 births for the 
3,000-3,499 birthweight group and the perinatal mortality rate for the 4,500+g birthweight group was 12.1 per 1000 
births. The perinatal mortality rate for babies of normal birthweight (2,500g or more) was 1.8 per 1,000 births. The 
decline in perinatal mortality with increasing gestational age is demonstrated in Table 49.

More detail regarding perinatal mortality is available in the  Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in South Australia  
reports.3

Table 48: Perinatal mortality by birthweight, all births, South Australia, 2015

Birthweight  
(g)

Total 
births

Live 
births

Stillbirths Neonatal deaths Perinatal deaths

Number
Deaths per 

1,000 births Number

Deaths per 
1,000 live 

births Number
Deaths per 

1,000 births

&lt;400 58 10 48 827.6 8 800.0 56 965.5

400-499 31 7 24 774.2 4 571.4 28 903.2

500-749 64 37 27 421.9 6 162.2 33 515.6

750-999 49 45 4 81.6 4 88.9 8 163.3

1,000-1,499 128 119 9 70.3 1 8.4 10 78.1

1,500-1,999 285 277 8 28.1 3 10.8 11 38.6

2,000-2,499 925 918 7 7.6 2 2.2 9 9.7

2,500-2,999 3,262 3,254 8 2.5 3 0.9 11 3.4

3,000-3,499 7,296 7,286 10 1.4 1 0.1 11 1.5

3,500-3,999 6,067 6,063 4 0.7 3 0.5 7 1.2

4,000-4,499 1,740 1,740 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

4,500+ 248 245 3 12.1 0 0.0 3 12.1

Unknown 1 0 1 1,000.0 0 0.0 1 1,000.0

Total 20,154 20,001 153 7.6 35 1.7 188 9.3

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  45

Mothers and Babies



Figure 10: Perinatal mortality rate by birthweight, all births, South Australia, 2015

0.1

1.0

10.0

100.0

1000.0

&lt;4
00

40
0-

49
9

50
0-

74
9

75
0-

99
9

1,0
00

-1
,49

9

1,5
00

-1
,99

9

2,0
00

-2
,49

9

2,5
00

-2
,99

9

3,0
00

-3
,49

9

3,5
00

-3
,99

9

4,0
00

-4
,49

9

4,5
00

+

Birthweight (g)

Pe
ri

n
at

al
 d

ea
th

s 
p

er
 1

,0
00

 b
ir

th
s

(l
o

g
ar

it
h

m
ic

 s
ca

le
)

 
Table 49: Perinatal mortality by gestational age at birth, South Australia, 2015

Gestational 
age at birth 
(weeks)

Total 
births

Live 
births

Stillbirths Neonatal deaths Perinatal deaths

Number

Deaths 
per 1,000 

births Number

Deaths per 
1,000 live 

births Number
Deaths per 

1,000 births

&lt;24 103 23 80 776.7 17 739.1 97 941.7

24-27 94 75 19 202.1 4 53.3 23 244.7

28-31 168 158 10 59.5 1 6.3 11 65.5

32-36 1,575 1,555 20 12.7 5 3.2 25 15.9

37-41 18,174 18,150 24 1.3 8 0.4 32 1.8

42+ 37 37 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

Unknown 3 3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

Total 20,154 20,001 153 7.6 35 1.7 188 9.3

The perinatal mortality rates for other specified minimum birthweights or gestational ages (where birthweight was 
unavailable) are provided in Table 50. The perinatal mortality rate recommended by the World Health Organisation 
(WHO) for use in international comparison refers only to stillbirths of at least 1,000g birthweight (or, if birthweight 
is unavailable, 28 weeks gestation) and to (early) neonatal deaths within the first 7 days of life. This rate was 3.2 per 
1,000 births in 2015, with a stillbirth rate of 2.5 per 1,000 births and an early neonatal mortality rate of 0.5 per 1,000 
live births. The perinatal mortality rate for births to Aboriginal women was 13.7 per 1,000 births in 2015 compared 
with 9.2 per 1,000 births for births to non-Aboriginal women (Table 51). 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 46

Mothers and Babies



Table 50: Perinatal mortality, South Australia, 2015 (all births of specified birthweight/gestation)

Specified  
birthweight/ 
gestation

Total 
births

Live 
births

Stillbirths Neonatal deaths Perinatal deaths

Number Number Number

Deaths 
per 1,000 

births Number

Deaths 
per 1,000 
live births Number

Deaths 
per 1,000 

births

?400g/20 weeks* 20,154 20,001 153 7.6 35 1.7 188 9.3

?500g/22 weeks 20,065 19,984 81 4.0 23 1.2 104 5.2

(WHO National Statistics)     18** 0.9 99 4.9**

?1,000g/28 weeks 19,952 19,902 50 2.5 13 0.7 63 3.2

(WHO International 
Statistics)

9** 0.5 59 3.0**

* There were 58 births of birthweight &lt;400g  

** only neonatal deaths within the first 7 days of life are included

Table 51: Perinatal mortality by race, all births, South Australia, 2015

Race

Total births Stillbirths Neonatal deaths Alive at 28 days Perinatal deaths

Number Number Number Number Number
Deaths per 

1,000 births

Caucasian 15,294 111 27 15,156 138 9.0

Aboriginal 732 6 4 722 10 13.7

Asian 2,739 18 2 2,719 20 7.3

Other 1,389 18 2 1,369 20 14.4

Total 20,154 153 35 19,966 188 9.3

29. Home births
Supplementary Birth Records were received from home birth midwives regarding planned home births for 95 women 
which occurred at home in 2015. There were five unplanned home births in South Australia in 2015 which have been 
excluded from the planned home birth statistics. Three of the women received no antenatal care. Ascertainment of 
planned home births occurring at home in South Australia for the year 2015 is estimated to be 91.7% (100 out of an 
estimated 109 home births). This estimate has been derived from a comparison with data from the Births, Deaths and 
Marriages Registration Division on births registered, which did not occur in hospital (and were not babies born before 
arrival at the hospital into which the woman had been booked). This proportion was increased from last year (85.7%). 
In addition, 30 women who planned to birth at home were transferred to hospital care before birth. Statistics for all 
125 planned home births in 2015 are provided in Tables 52-55, by place of birth.

Table 52: Planned home births by age of women, South Australia, 2015

Age (years)

Birthed at home Birthed in hospital Total

Number % Number % Number %

&lt;20 5 5.3 3 10.0 8 6.4

20-24 26 27.4 9 30.0 35 28.0

25-29 40 42.1 11 36.7 51 40.8

30-34 20 21.1 7 23.3 27 21.6

35-39 2 2.1 0 0.0 2 1.6

40-44 2 2.1 0 0.0 2 1.6

Total 95 100.0 30 100.0 125 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  47

Mothers and Babies



Table 53: Method of birth in planned home births, South Australia, 2015

Method of birth

Birthed at home Birthed in hospital Total

Number % Number % Number %

Normal spontaneous vaginal 94 98.9 19 63.3 113 90.4

Forceps 0 0.0 3 10.0 3 2.4

Elective caesarean section 0 0.0 6 20.0 6 4.8

Emergency caesarean section 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 0.8

Ventouse 1 1.1 0 0.0 1 0.8

Breech spontaneous 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 0.8

Total 95 100.0 30 100.0 125 100.0

Table 54: Birthweight distribution of planned home births, South Australia, 2015

Birthweight (g)

Birthed at home Birthed in hospital Total

Number % Number % Number %

1,500-1,999 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 0.8

2,000-2,499 - - - - - -

2,500-2,999 8 8.4 0 0.0 8 6.4

3,000-3,499 28 29.5 12 40.0 40 32.0

3,500-3,999 36 37.9 14 46.7 50 40.0

4,000-4,499 19 20.0 3 10.0 22 17.6

4,500+ 4 4.2 0 0.0 4 3.2

Total 95 100.0 30 100.0 125 100.0

Table 55: Perinatal outcome in planned home births, South Australia, 2015

Perinatal outcome

Birthed at home Birthed in hospital Total

Number % Number % Number %

Stillbirth - - - - - -

Discharged within 28 days 95 100.0 29 96.7 124 99.2

Discharged within 28 days 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 0.8

Neonatal death - - - - - -

Total 95 100.0 30 100.0 125 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 48

Mothers and Babies



30. Birthing unit births
Statistics presented for births in birthing units in South Australia (Tables 56-59) relate to the birthing units at the 
Women s and Children s Hospital, the Lyell McEwin Hospital and Flinders Medical Centre. The units at the Women s 
and Children s Hospital and the Lyell McEwin Hospital were established in 1992 and 1993 respectively under the 
Alternative Birthing Services Programme.  In October 1996 the birthing unit at Flinders Medical Centre commenced 
a birthing service.5 These statistics relate to all 2,194 women for whom it was reported that  birthing unit  was 
their intended place of birth. Of these women, 1,144 gave birth in the birthing units while 1,050 women (47.9%) 
gave birth in labour wards. Some of these women were transferred to labour wards because of medical or obstetric 
complications. With the commencement of the Midwifery Group Practice model of care at Women s and Children s 
Hospital in 2004, more of these women who gave birth in labour wards than previously did so because the birthing 
unit was not available at the time. Among the women who gave birth in labour wards, 24.3% had caesarean 
sections and 17.9% had instrumental births. These statistics have also been included in the statistics for the respective 
hospitals. Fifty-nine babies (2.7%) were of low birthweight and there were four perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality 
rate 1.8per 1,000 births). 

Table 56: Planned birthing unit births by age of women, South Australia, 2015

Age 

(years)

Birthed in birthing unit Birthed in labour ward Total

Number % Number % Number %

&lt;20 57 5.0 34 3.2 91 4.1

20-24 199 17.4 161 15.3 360 16.4

25-29 361 31.6 354 33.7 715 32.6

30-34 385 33.7 347 33.0 732 33.4

35-39 130 11.4 139 13.2 269 12.3

40-44 12 1.0 14 1.3 26 1.2

45+ 0 0.0 1 0.1 1 0.0

Total 1,144 52.1 1,050 47.9 2,194 100.0

Table 57: Method of birth in planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015

Method of birth

Birthed in birthing unit Birthed in labour ward Total

Number % Number % Number %

Normal spontaneous vaginal 1,102 96.3 603 57.4 1,705 77.7

Forceps 6 0.5 104 9.9 110 5.0

Caesarean section (elective) 0 0.0 41 3.9 41 1.9

Caesarean section (emergency) 0 0.0 214 20.4 214 9.8

Ventouse 35 3.1 84 8.0 119 5.4

Breech spontaneous 1 0.1 3 0.3 4 0.2

Assisted breech (forceps) 0 0.0 1 0.1 1 0.0

Total 1,144 100.0 1,050 100.0 2194 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  49

Mothers and Babies



Table 58: Birthweight distribution of planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015

Birthweight (g)

Birthed in birthing unit Birthed in labour ward Total

Number % Number % Number %

&lt;1,500 0 0.0 4 0.4 4 0.2

1,500-1,999 0 0.0 8 0.8 8 0.4

2,000-2,499 7 0.6 40 3.8 47 2.1

2,500-2,999 118 10.3 145 13.8 263 12.0

3,000-3,499 426 37.2 374 35.6 800 36.4

3,500-3,999 423 37.0 361 34.3 784 35.7

4,000-4,499 147 12.8 109 10.4 256 11.7

4,500+ 23 2.0 10 1.0 33 1.5

Total 1,144 100.0 1,051 100.0 2,195 100.0

Table 59: Perinatal outcome in planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015

Perinatal outcome

Birthed in birthing unit Birthed in labour ward Total

Number % Number % Number %

Stillbirth 0 0.0 3 0.3 3 0.1

Discharged within 28 days 1,144 100.0 1,041 99.0 2,185 99.5

Prolonged hospitalisation 
(in hospital at 28 days)

0 0.0 6 0.6 6 0.3

Neonatal death 0 0.0 1 0.1 1 0.0

Total 1,144 100.0 1,051 100.0 2,195 100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 50

Mothers and Babies



III. Terminations of Pregnancy

1. Numbers and rates
There were 4,439 terminations of pregnancy notified in South Australia in 2015, 211 fewer than in 2014. There were 
13.5 terminations of pregnancy per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years. Following the introduction of specific legislation 
in 1970, the pregnancy termination rate rose to a peak of 13.9 in 1980, followed by a period of relative stability in the 
1980s. Another increase commenced in 1991 reaching a peak of 17.9 in 1999 (Table 60 and Figure 11), from which 
time there has been a steady decline.

Table 60: Number* of pregnancy terminations, and rate per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years,  
South Australia, 1970-2015

Year Number Rate Year Number Rate

1970 1,440 6.0 1993 4,959 15.0

1971 2,409 9.6 1994 5,140 15.7

1972 2,692 10.6 1995 5,475 16.9

1973 2,847 11.1 1996 5,545 17.2

1974 2,867 10.9 1997 5,609 17.5

1975 3,000 11.1 1998 5,488 17.2

1976 3,289 11.9 1999 5,679 17.9

1977 3,494 12.4 2000 5,580 17.6

1978 3,895 13.6 2001 5,579 17.7

1979 3,880 13.3 2002 5,467 17.5

1980 4,081 13.9 2003 5,216 16.7

1981 4,096 13.7 2004 4,931 15.9

1982 4,061 13.4 2005 4,715 15.3

1983 4,036 13.1 2006 4,889 15.5

1984 4,091 13.1 2007 4,885 15.4

1985 4,079 12.9 2008 5,101 16.0

1986 4,327 13.5 2009 5,057 15.6

1987 4,229 13.1 2010 5,048 15.5

1988 4,263 13.0 2011 5,010 15.5

1989 4,342 13.2 2012 4,765 14.7

1990 4,463 13.4 2013 4,681 14.4

1991 4,496 14.1 2014 4,650 13.8

1992 4,717 14.2 2015 4,439 13.5

*The corrected total numbers of pregnancy terminations notified for the years 1970 to 2015 are shown in Table 60

Figure 11: Pregnancy termination rate per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, South Australia, 1970-2015

0 

4 

8 

12 

16 

20 

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Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  51

Terminations of Pregnancy



2. Age of women
The age distribution of women who had pregnancies terminated in 2015 is shown in Table 61. Among the five-year 
age groups, the highest pregnancy termination rate was among women aged 20-24 years (21.3 per 1,000 women), 
followed by women aged 25-29 years (19.4 per 1,000 women). Pregnancy termination rates continued to fall for 
teenage women, from 10.3 per 1,000 women in 2014 to 8.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years in 2015. The 
teenage pregnancy rate (including live births and induced abortions) continued to decline, and in 2015 was the lowest 
on record for the state at 19.4 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years compared with 22.1 in 2014 (Figure 13). The 
 abortion proportion  (induced abortion as a proportion of induced abortions and live births) was 0.18. It was highest 
among teenagers (0.40), and was also high among women aged 20-24 years (0.31) and women aged 40-44 years 
(0.26). This indicated that about 40% of known teenage pregnancies were terminated. This proportion was highest 
for younger teenagers (0.82 for those aged &lt;15 years).

Table 61: Terminations of pregnancy by age, South Australia, 2015

Age (years) Number
% of terminations  

under 20 years % of all terminations

11 0 0.0 0.0

12 0 0.0 0.0

13 4 0.9 0.1

14 10 2.3 0.2

15 17 3.9 0.4

16 52 11.9 1.2

17 72 16.5 1.6

18 115 26.3 2.6

19 167 38.2 3.8

Sub-total 437 100.0 9.8

Under 15 14 0.3

15-19 423 9.5

20 24 1,182 26.6

25 29 1,104 24.9

30 34 886 20.0

35 39 582 13.1

40 44 236 5.3

45 and over 12 0.3

Total 4,439  100.0

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 52

Terminations of Pregnancy



Table 62: Termination of pregnancy and live birth rates and termination of pregnancy proportions by age, 
South Australia, 2015

Age 
(years)

Number 
of induced 
abortions

Estimated 
resident female 

population 
2015*

Induced 
abortion rate 

per 1,000 
women

Number of 
live births#

Fertility 
rate

per 1,000 
women

Induced 
abortions 

and live 
births

Abortion 
proportion

&lt;15 14           na na 3 na 17 0.82

15-19 423 51,024 8.6 549 10.8 972 0.44

20-24 1,182 55,483 21.3 2,636 47.5 3,818 0.31

25-29 1,104 56,896 19.4 5,725 100.6 6,829 0.16

30-34 886 56,696 15.6 7,005 123.6 7,891 0.11

35-39 582 51,614 11.3 3,346 64.8 3,928 0.15

40-44 236 56,171 4.4 675 13.1 911 0.26

45+ 12 na na 62 na 74 0.16

Total 4,439 327,884 13.5 20,001 61.0 24,440 0.18

*Australian Bureau of Statistics. Population Estimates by Age and Sex, South Australia 2015. Canberra: ABS, 2015 (Catalogue No 3235.0).

#Terminations of pregnancy are excluded from the numbers of live births. 

 The termination of pregnancy and live birth rates for women aged 15-19 years include terminations and live births at younger ages, and the rates for 
women aged 40-44 years include terminations and live births at older ages, while the total rates include all terminations and live births.

Figure 12: Termination of pregnancy and live births by age, South Australia, 2015

0% 

20% 

40% 

60% 

80% 

100% 

Abortions Live births Abortions &amp; Live births 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

o
f 

w
o

m
en

 

Age (years) 

40+ 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 &lt;20 

n=4,6501 n=20,600 n=25,250

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  53

Terminations of Pregnancy



Figure 13: Teenage pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and birth rates, South Australia, 1970-2015

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 
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at

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er
 1

,0
00

 w
o

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ed
 1

5-
19

 y
ea

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Year 

Abortion rate* Birth rate* Pregnancy rate* 

*Abortions and births to women aged less than 15 years are included in the numerator

3. Place of residence and place where termination performed
The proportion of pregnancy terminations to country residents (18.9%) was similar to previous years. The proportion 
of pregnancy terminations performed in country hospitals rose slightly (2.1%), compared with 1.6% in 2014, but the 
majority of country residents had their terminations in metropolitan hospitals (Table 63 and Table 64). 

Table 63: Terminations by place of residence, South Australia, 2015

Residence of women Number %

Metropolitan 3,584 81.1

Country 835 18.9

Total 4,419 100.0

As in previous years, the vast majority of pregnancy terminations (97.1%) were performed in metropolitan public 
hospitals, with 59.8% (2,578) of these at the Pregnancy Advisory Centre (Table 64). 

Table 64: Terminations by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

Hospital where termination performed Number %

Metropolitan public 4,309 97.1

Metropolitan private 38 0.9

Country 92 2.1

Total 4,439 100.0

Doctors in family advisory clinics in teaching hospitals and the Pregnancy Advisory Centre performed 78.8% of 
the terminations. Obstetricians and trainees (medical practitioners) performed 15.7%, while general practitioners 
performed 5.4% (Table 65).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 54

Terminations of Pregnancy



Table 65:  Terminations by category of doctor, South Australia, 2015

Category of doctor performing termination Number %

Medical practitioner in family advisory clinic 3,500 78.8

Obstetrician/gynaecologist 519 11.7

Trainee obstetrician/gynaecologist 179 4.0

General practitioner 241 5.4

Total 4,439 100.0

4. The reason for termination
The pattern of reasons for termination of pregnancy remained similar to previous years, with 95.6% performed for 
the woman s mental health, 3.8% for serious handicap of the fetus and 0.6% for specified medical conditions. Of 
the 170 terminations for fetal reasons, 96 were for chromosomal abnormalities and 70 for other fetal abnormalities 
detected or suspected prenatally. Four were performed for exposure during pregnancy to drugs, which may cause 
fetal abnormalities (Table 66). 

Table 66:  Reason for termination for fetal reasons, South Australia, 2015

Reason for termination Number %

Identified chromosomal abnormality 96 56.5

Other identified fetal abnormality 70 41.2

Possibility of damage from drugs 4 2.4

Total 170 100.0

5. Gestation, method and complications
The majority of terminations (92.0%) were performed within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy and most frequently (in 
61.9% of cases) by vacuum aspiration/dilatation and curettage. There were 90 terminations performed at 20 weeks 
gestation or later: 55.6% of these were performed for fetal reasons. 

Tables 67 and 68 report complications by the number of women undergoing termination procedures (4,439), which 
included five failed procedures - unsuccessful initial procedures, all with mifepristone +/- misoprostol, with all five 
progressing to a successful abortion (four using a surgical procedure). 

There were 115 (2.6%) women who experienced complications related to a pregnancy termination. Fifty-five (47.8%) 
of these were reported on the notification form, and 60 (52.2%) were identified through validation with hospital 
admission statistics from the South Australian hospital morbidity collection, using codes for pregnancy termination for 
women admitted in to hospital. The notification form tends to identify more immediate complications.

The main complication reported was retained products of conception (89 women). Of the 90 women with 
complications reported following termination with mifepristone +/- misoprostol, 74 (82.2%) were due to retained 
products. 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  55

Terminations of Pregnancy



Table 67: Complications of termination procedures, South Australia, 2015

Complication
Number of 

complications % of complications
% of all termination 

procedures

Retained products of conception 89 77.4 2.0

Uterine infection 11 9.6 0.2

Sepsis 1 0.9 0.0

Haemorrhage post-operative 2 1.7 0.0

Haemorrhage intra-operative 2 1.7 0.0

Bleeding 4 3.5 0.1

Failed procedure 5 4.3 0.1

Perforation/trauma to uterus 1 0.9 0.0

Total 115 100.0 2.6

Table 68: Complications by method of termination procedure, South Australia, 2014

Method of termination
Number of women  
with complications

Number of  
termination procedures

% of termination 
procedure with 

complications by method

Mifepristone +/- misoprostol 90 1,310 6.9

Vacuum aspiration / Dilatation 
and curettage

 
15

 
2,747

 
1.2

Vaginal prostaglandin 2 11 18.2

Dilatation and evacuation 6 347 1.7

Misoprostol 2 21 9.5

Hysterotomy 0 1 0.0

Other 0 2 0.0

Total 115 4,439 2.6

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 56

Terminations of Pregnancy



6. Previous terminations. Total termination of pregnancy rate and total first 
termination of pregnancy rate
Of the 4,439 women who had pregnancy terminations, 1,624 (36.6%) had undergone a previous termination (Table 
69). Among teenagers 12.4% had a previous termination of pregnancy; 30.2% of women aged 20-24 years and 
44.0% of women aged 35-39 years had undergone a previous termination.  

The total induced abortion rate (TAR) is the sum of pregnancy termination rates for each of the five-year age groups 
multiplied by five. This can be calculated using the rates in Table 62 and in 2015 was 403.0 per 1,000 women aged 
15-44 (Table 70). This represents the number of induced abortions 1,000 women would have during their lifetime if 
they experienced the induced abortion rates of the different age groups for 2015.

A woman may have more than one termination of pregnancy in her lifetime, and to estimate how prevalent 
termination of pregnancy is at these age-specific induced abortion rates, a total first induced abortion rate (TFAR, 
Table 71) may be calculated after excluding women with repeat terminations. The TFAR for 2015 was 256.3 per 1,000 
women aged 15-44 years. This suggests that 25.6% of women would have at least one termination of pregnancy in 
their lifetime if they experienced the termination of pregnancy rates of the different age groups for 2015.

Table 69: Women with previous terminations by age, South Australia, 2015

Age (years) Number % of age group % of all terminations

&lt; 20 54 12.4 1.2

20 - 24 357 30.2 8.0

25 - 29 448 40.6 10.1

30 - 34 394 44.5 8.9

35 - 39 256 44.0 5.8

40+ 115 46.4 2.6

Total 1,676 36.0 36.0

Further details of termination of pregnancy in South Australia in 2015 may be obtained from the Annual Report of 
the South Australian Abortion Reporting Committee   for the year 2015.6

Table 70: Calculation of total induced abortion rate (TAR) for South Australia, 2015*

Age (years)
Number of women  

who had terminations
Estimated female resident  
population 30 June 2015#

Termination of pregnancy 
rate per 1,000 women

15-19* 437 51,024 8.6

20-24 1,182 55,483 21.3

25-29 1,104 56,896 19.4

30-34 886 56,696 15.6

35-39 582 51,614 11.3

40-44* 248 56,171 4.4

Total 4,439 327,884 13.5

*In these calculations, termination of pregnancy for women under 15 years are included in the age group 15-19 yrs and termination of pregnancy for 
women aged 45 years or more are included in the age group 40-44 years, as is traditional.

# Australian Bureau of Statistics. Population Estimates by Age and Sex, South Australia 30 June 2015. Canberra: ABS, 2015 (Catalogue No 3235.0). 

Total induced abortion rate (TAR) = sum of termination of pregnancy rates for 5-year age groups x 5 = 80.6 x 5 = 403.0 per 1,000 women aged 
15-44 years.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  57

Terminations of Pregnancy



Table 71: Calculation of total first induced abortion rate (TFAR) for South Australia, 2015

Age 
(years)

Number of 
women who had 

terminations

(A)

Number of women 
who had previous 

terminations

(B)

Number of women 
who had first 

termination

(A)   (B)

Estimated 
female resident 

population 
30 June 2015*

First termination 
of pregnancy 

rate per 1,000 
women

15-19 437 54 383 51,024 7.5

20-24 1,182 357 825 55,483 14.9

25-29 1,104 448 656 56,896 11.5

30-34 886 394 492 56,696 8.7

35-39 582 256 326 51,614 6.3

40-44 248 115 133 56,171 2.4

Total 4,439 1,624 2,815 327,884 8.6

* Australian Bureau of Statistics. Population Estimates by Age and Sex, South Australia 30 June 2015. Canberra: ABS, 2015 (Catalogue No 3235.0). 

 In these calculations, termination of pregnancy for women under 15 years are included in the age group 15-19 years and termination of pregnancy for 
women aged 45 years or more are included in the age group 40-44 years.

Total induced abortion rate (TFAR) = sum of first termination of pregnancy rates for 5-year age groups x 5 = 51.3 x 5 = 256.3 per 1,000 women 
aged 15-44 yrs. 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 58

Terminations of Pregnancy



IV. Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category
Obstetric profiles for the three major metropolitan public hospitals and three hospital categories for 2015 are 
provided in Table 72 and Figures 14-33. They were also reported for hospital categories and individual hospitals in the 
Pregnancy and Neonatal Care Bulletins.

These hospital categories as determined by their Perinatal Service Delineation are:

 1. The Women s &amp; Children s Hospital

 2. Flinders Medical Centre 

 3. The  Lyell McEwin Hospital

 4. Metropolitan private hospitals

 5. The two Level 4:4 country hospitals (Mount Gambier and Port Augusta)

 6.   Other country hospitals (Perinatal Service Delineation of 3:3). 

Six mothers who gave birth at the Noarlunga, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Royal Adelaide Hospital have been 
excluded from these hospital category statistics.

A list of maternal and baby characteristics identified either as risk factors for poor perinatal outcome in earlier 
analyses,7 or of general interest, is provided with  means  for all state hospital births as well as proportions for the six 
hospital categories.

The  mean  is the proportion for women who gave birth in all state hospitals (for maternal factors) or births in all state 
hospitals (for baby factors), e.g. % Aboriginal women 

x100
    Total number of women who gave birth in state hospitals

    Number of Aboriginal  women who gave birth in state hospitals

Where indicated (+) in Table 72, it is the mean (number of women who gave birth, or births) for the 20 hospitals 
or groups of hospitals for which obstetric profiles have been provided, and which have also been included in the 
provision of the 10th and 90th percentile values. These are as follows:

  1. Women s &amp; Children s Hospital

  2. Flinders Medical Centre

  3. Lyell McEwin Hospital

  4. Ashford Hospital 

  5. Burnside War Memorial Hospital Inc

  6. Calvary Healthcare Adelaide

  7. Flinders Private Hospital

  8. North Eastern Community Hospital

  9. Mount Gambier &amp; District Health Service Inc

10. Port Augusta Hospital &amp; Regional Health Service Inc

11. Gawler Health Service

12. Mount Barker District Soldiers  Memorial Hospital Inc

13. Murray Bridge Soldiers  Memorial Hospital Inc

14. Naracoorte Health Service Inc

15. Northern Yorke Peninsula Regional Health Service (Wallaroo)

16.     Port Lincoln Health Service Inc

17. Port Pirie Regional Health Service Inc

18. Riverland General Hospital (Berri)

19. The Whyalla Hospital &amp; Health Services Inc

20. Country hospitals with &lt;100 births per year

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  59

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



The 10th percentile is the proportion below which 10% of the 20 hospital proportions, i.e. the two lowest hospital 
proportions, would be found if the 20 proportions were ranked from highest to lowest. The 90th percentile is the 
proportion above which 10% of the 20 hospital proportions, i.e. the two highest proportions, would be found if 
the 20 proportions were ranked from highest to lowest. As the two Level Six hospitals which account for 41.8% of 
hospital births have proportions of some factors (such as prolonged hospitalisation and use of neonatal intensive care) 
which are much greater than for the other 18 hospitals, occasionally the mean for all hospitals will be seen to be 
higher than the 90th percentile.

The table and figures provide obstetric profiles for the three major metropolitan public hospitals and three hospital 
categories. These have been provided since 1986 to hospitals with 100 or more births per year, together with their 
individual hospital profiles, including crude and standardized perinatal mortality ratios,8 the latter with exclusion of 
perinatal deaths from congenital abnormalities3 and terminations of pregnancy. For country hospitals with less than 
100 births per year, a group report has been provided.

Each hospital s statistics for each factor may be compared with those for state hospitals and for categories of 
hospitals, e.g. whether a hospital s proportion for any factor falls within the range of the more common proportions 
prevailing in hospitals in the state (i.e. between the 10th and the 90th percentiles).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 60

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



Table 72:  Obstetric profiles by hospital category, South Australia, 2015: live births and stillbirths of ?400g  
or ?20 weeks gestation#

Factors

All state hospitals Metropolitan hospitals Country hospitals

Mean 10th percentile
90th 

percentile W&amp;CH FMC LMH Private
Level 

4:4 Other

Maternal factors

Women (n= 19,713) 986+ 141 3,550 4,625 3,550 3,605 4,255 860 2,818

% Aboriginal women 3.6 0.2 9.3 4.0 3.0 4.7 0.3 11.6 5.2

% Antenatal visits &lt;7* 10.1 1.0 13.8 18.1 11.5 13.8 1.1 6.9 5.4

% Teenage women 2.8 0.0 8.4 2.4 2.6 4.9 0.1 4.7 4.5

% Women ?35 years 20.3 11.2 30.5 21.4 19.2 13.8 32.0 11.6 13.3

% Single women 9.0 2.3 19.1 10.2 8.8 13.5 2.2 13.7 10.2

% 4+ prior live births 3.1 0.5 6.1 3.0 2.7 5.7 0.5 5.1 3.8

% 1+ prior perinatal deaths 1.4 0.3 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.4 0.6 2.3 0.7

% Obstetric complications 44.1 29.6 46.5 42.4 62.1 48.3 35.0 44.1 32.7

% Labour complications 39.0 25.4 38.6 47.4 51.4 38.6 27.7 28.1 30.7

% Induction 32.6 25.9 37.4 35.1 34.2 28.7 34.4 32.9 29.1

% Emergency caesarean 17.9 13.1 19.8 18.0 19.2 17.9 18.3 14.9 16.6

% Elective caesarean 17.3 11.8 26.6 13.2 17.5 14.1 27.0 16.2 13.7

% Total caesarean 35.2 26.8 46.4 31.2 36.8 32.0 45.3 31.0 30.3

% Ultrasound 
examination* 98.2 95.7 99.6 98.7 99.1 98.5 97.0 98.1 97.5

% Amniocentesis* 1.8 0.3 1.8 3.4 1.3 1.8 1.2 1.0 0.8

% Episiotomy 14.4 5.0 18.1 18.1 14.9 14.4 15.4 7.7 7.8

% Repair of perineal tear 25.6 17.6 30.8 31.5 23.4 20.7 26.2 24.0 24.4

% Epidural analgesia 31.3 16.0 41.4 36.7 26.4 27.7 42.5 22.2 18.9

% Spinal analgesia 1.0 0.7 2.1 0.0 0.9 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.4

% Private patients 25.5 1.0 100.0 8.0 1.0 0.9 100.0 15.5 7.1

% Primiparous women 41.6 32.8 44.9 44.9 44.0 37.5 44.7 37.1 35.4

% Previous caesarean 19.0 15.6 23.9 17.0 20.2 17.8 22.4 18.3 17.5

% PPH 13.9 4.5 15.1 20.5 19.1 13.8 5.8 8.4 10.8

Baby factors 

Births (n= 20,048) 1,002 141 3,627 4,747 3,627 3,654 4,327 874 2,819

% Birthweight &lt;2,500g 7.6 1.8 7.8 13.7 9.2 6.3 4.8 5.9 2.0

% Gestational age &lt;37 
weeks at birth 9.6 1.0 10.3 15.7 12.4 8.0 7.5 8.6 1.7

% Prolonged 
hospitalisation (&gt;27 days) 2.1 0.0 2.8 4.2 3.7 0.5 1.2 1.0 0.2

% Neonatal intensive  
care (Level  6 or W&amp;CH  
paediatric intensive care)

2.9 0.6 1.6 6.4 4.8 1.1 0.8 1.4 0.7

% Birth defect 2.6 0.9 2.5 4.8 2.3 2.1 1.3 2.1 1.8

* adjusted for missing values
+ mean number of women who gave birth, or mean number of births for the 20 hospitals or groups of hospitals  

# 6 mothers who gave birth at Noarlunga Health, RAH and TQEH have been excluded from this table 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  61

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



Figure 14: Percentage of Aboriginal women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 
2.0 
4.0 
6.0 
8.0 

10.0 
12.0 
14.0 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Figure 15: Percentage of women with &lt;7 antenatal visits by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 
2.0 
4.0 
6.0 
8.0 

10.0 
12.0 
14.0 
16.0 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Figure 16: Percentage of teenage women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

1.0 

2.0 

3.0 
4.0 

6.0
5.0

7.0
8.0

9.0
90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Figure 17: Percentage of women 35 years or more by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

5.0 

10.0 

15.0 

20.0 

25.0 

30.0 

35.0 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 62

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



Figure 18: Percentage of single women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 
2.0 
4.0 
6.0 
8.0 

10.0 
12.0 
14.0 
16.0 
18.0 
20.0 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Figure 19: Percentage of women with 4 or more prior livebirths by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

1.0 

2.0 

3.0 

4.0 

5.0 

6.0 

7.0 

8.0 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Figure 20: Percentage of women with 1 or more prior perinatal deaths by hospital category,  
South Australia, 2015

0.0 

0.5 

1.0 

1.5 

2.0 

2.5 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Figure 21: Percentage of women with obstetric complications by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

10.0 

20.0 

30.0 

40.0 

50.0 

60.0 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

10th percentile 

90th percentile 
Mean 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  63

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



Figure 22: Percentage of women with complications during labour or birth by hospital category,  
South Australia, 2015

0.0 

10.0 

20.0 

30.0 

40.0 

50.0 

60.0 

10th percentile 

90th percentile 
Mean 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Figure 23: Percentage of women with induction of labour by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

10.0 

20.0 

30.0 

40.0 90th percentile 
Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Figure 24: Percentage of women having epidural analgesia by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

10.0 

20.0 

30.0 

40.0 

50.0 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

Figure 25: Percentage of breech births by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.1 
0.0 

0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.9 
1.0 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 64

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



Figure 26: Percentage of emergency caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

5.0 

10.0 

15.0 

20.0 

25.0 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

90th percentile 
Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Figure 27: Percentage of elective caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

5.0 

10.0 

15.0 

20.0 

25.0 

30.0 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

90th percentile 

Figure 28: Percentage of total caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

10.0 

20.0 

30.0 

40.0 

50.0 
90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Figure 29: Percentage of births with birthweight below 2,500g by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 
2.0 

4.0 
6.0 

8.0 

10.0 
12.0 
14.0 

16.0 

90th percentile 
Mean 

 

10th percentile 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  65

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



Figure 30: Percentage of births with gestation less than 37 weeks by hospital category, South Australia, 
2015

0.0 

2.0 
4.0 

6.0 

8.0 

10.0 

12.0 
14.0 

16.0 

18.0 

90th percentile 
Mean 

10th percentile 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Figure 31: Percentage of births with prolonged hospitalisation by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0 

1.0 

3.0 
2.5

1.5

0.5

2.0 

3.5
4.0 
4.5 

10th percentile 

 90th percentile 

Mean 

 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Hospital category 

Figure 32: Percentage of live births requiring neonatal intensive care by hospital category,  
South Australia, 2015

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

90th percentile 

Mean 

10th percentile 

Figure 33: Percentage of births with birth defects by hospital category, South Australia, 2015

0.0

2.0

1.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Pe
rc

en
ta

g
e 

Hospital category 

90th percentile 
Mean 

10th percentile 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 66

Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category



V. Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators

1. Clinical indicators

Ten national core maternity indicators have been developed to examine trends in maternity interventions and 
outcomes and the quality of maternity services in the years after the introduction of the National Maternity Services 
Plan.9 This report presents these indicators  with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for South Australian births in 
2015. They were also reported for individual hospitals in the Pregnancy and Neonatal Care Bulletin 2015. Indicator 
specifications are in accordance with the 2015 National Core Maternity Indicators report.10

For the purpose of Indicators 5, 6 and 8  selected primiparae  was defined as:

 &gt; a woman who was 20-34 years of age at the time of giving birth

 &gt; giving birth for the first time at ?20 weeks of gestation

 &gt; singleton pregnancy

 &gt; cephalic presentation

 &gt; at 37 to 41 weeks gestation.

INDICATOR 1: Smoking in pregnancy 

Description: This indicator has two parts: (a) among all women who gave birth, the proportion who reported smoking 
tobacco at any time within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy; and (b) among women who reported smoking, the 
proportion who reported smoking after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Purpose: This indicator is used to monitor public health and assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation advice in the 
antenatal period in the antenatal period. 

 &gt; Clinical indicator 1a: Total number of women smoking in first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Numerator: The number of women who gave birth and reported smoking tobacco in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy 
(n=2,462).

Denominator: The total number of women who gave birth (n=19,818).

Clinical indicator 1a = 
2,462 x 100

19,818  = 12.4% (95% CI 12.0% - 12.9%).   

 &gt; Clinical indicator 1b: Proportion of women who smoked in first 20 weeks of pregnancy and continued to 
smoke in the second 20 weeks of pregnancy.  

Numerator:  The number of women who gave birth and reported smoking tobacco in the second 20 weeks of 
pregnancy (n= 1,654).

Denominator:  The number of women who gave birth who reported smoking tobacco at any time in the pregnancy 
(n= 2,462).

Clinical indicator 1b = 
1,654 x 100

2,462  = 67.2% (95% CI 65.3%   69.0%).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  67

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



INDICATOR 2: Antenatal care in the first trimester for all women giving birth

Description: Among all women who gave birth, the proportion who commenced antenatal care in the first trimester 
(before 14 weeks gestation).

Purpose: This indicator is used to assess the accessibility of antenatal services.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 2: Antenatal care in the first trimester for all women giving birth

Numerator: The number of women who had their first antenatal visit before 14 weeks gestation and went on to give 
birth (n=14,717).

Denominator: The number of all women who gave birth (n=19,818).

Clinical indicator 2 =
 14,717,x 100

19,818  = 74.3% (95% CI 73.6% - 74.9%).

INDICATOR 3: Episiotomy for women having their first baby and giving birth vaginally

Description: This indicator has two parts among women who had their first baby: (a) the proportion who received an 
episiotomy while giving birth vaginally without instruments; and (b) the proportion who received an episiotomy during 
an instrumental vaginal birth.

Purpose: This indicator is used to benchmark practice. 

 &gt; Clinical indicator 3a: Total number of women having their first baby who gave birth vaginally without 
instruments and had an episiotomy

Numerator: The number of women having their first baby who had an episiotomy while giving birth vaginally without 
instruments (n=798)

Denominator: The number of women having their first baby who gave birth vaginally without instruments (n=3,525)

Clinical indicator 3a = 
798 x 100

3,525  = 22.6% (95% CI 21.3% - 24.0%). 

 &gt; Clinical indicator 3b: Total number of women having their first baby who gave birth vaginally with 
instrumental assistance and had an episiotomy

Numerator: The number of women having their first baby who had an episiotomy during a vaginal birth with 
instruments (n=1,283)

Denominator: The number of women having their first baby who gave birth vaginally with instruments (n=1,774)

Clinical indicator 3b = 1,283 x 1001,774 = 72.3% (95% CI 70.2% - 74.4%).

INDICATOR 4: Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes for births at or after term

Description: The proportion of liveborn term infants with an Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes.

Purpose: This indicator of the condition of the baby after birth provides an outcome measure of intrapartum  
care and resuscitation of the newborn.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 4: Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes for births at or after term

Numerator: The number of babies born alive at term with an Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes (n=217).

Denominator: The number of live babies born at term (n=18,190).

Clinical indicator 4 =  
217 x 100

18,190   = 1.2% (95% CI 1.0% - 1.4%).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 68

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



INDICATOR 5: Induction of labour for selected primiparae

Description: The proportion of all selected primiparae, whose labour was induced.

Purpose: This indicator is used to benchmark practice.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 5: Induction of labour for selected women giving birth for the first time

Numerator: The number of selected primiparae who had labour induced (n=2,504).

Denominator: All selected women giving birth for the first time (n=5,770).

Clinical indicator 5 = 
2,504 x 100

5,770  = 43.4% (95% CI 42.1% - 44.7%).

INDICATOR 6: Caesarean section for selected primiparae

Description: The proportion of all selected primiparae who gave birth by caesarean section.

Purpose: This indicator is used to benchmark practice.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 6: Caesarean section for selected primiparae

Numerator: The number of selected primiparae who gave birth by caesarean section (n=1,723).

Denominator: All selected primiparae (n=5,770).

Clinical indicator 6 = 
1,723 x 100

5,770 = 29.9% (95% CI 28.7% - 31.1%).).

INDICATOR 7: Normal (non-instrumental) vaginal birth for selected primiparae

Description: The proportion of all selected primiparae, who had a normal (non-instrumental) vaginal birth.

Purpose: This indicator is used to benchmark practice.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 7: Normal (non-instrumental) vaginal birth for selected primiparae

Numerator: The number of selected primiparae who had a normal (non-instrumental) vaginal birth (n=2,657).

Denominator: All selected primiparae (n=5,770).

Clinical indicator 7 = 
2,657 x 100

5,770 = 46.0% (95% CI 44.8% - 47.3%).

INDICATOR 8: Instrumental vaginal birth for selected primiparae

Description: The proportion of all selected primiparae, who had a vaginal birth with the assistance of instruments.

Purpose: This indicator is used to benchmark practice.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 8: Instrumental vaginal birth for selected primiparae

Numerator: The number of selected primiparae who had a vaginal birth with the assistance of instruments (n=1,390).

Denominator: All selected primiparae (n=5,770).

Clinical indicator 8 =  
1,390 x 100

5,770  = 24.1% (95% CI 23.0% - 25.2%).

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  69

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



INDICATOR 9: General anaesthetic for women giving birth by caesarean section

Description: The proportion of women who gave birth by caesarean section who received a general anaesthetic.

Purpose: This indicator is used to benchmark anaesthetic care in association with caesarean section.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 9: General anaesthetic for women giving birth by caesarean section

Numerator: The number of women who gave birth by caesarean section and had a general anaesthetic (n=351).

Denominator: The total number of women who gave birth by caesarean section (n=6,941).

Clinical indicator 9 =  
351 x 100

6,941 = 5.1% (95% CI 4.6% - 5.6%).

INDICATOR 10: Small babies among births at or after 40 weeks gestation

Description: The proportion of babies born at or after 40 weeks gestation who weighed less than 2,750 grams at 
birth.

Purpose: This indicator aims to identify intrauterine growth restriction for babies born at or after 40 weeks gestation. 
This indicator is used to benchmark practice.

 &gt; Clinical indicator 10.1: Small babies among births at or after 40 weeks gestation

Numerator: The number of babies born at or after 40 weeks gestation who weighed less than 2,750 grams at birth 
(n=96).

Denominator: The total number of babies born at or after 40 weeks (n=6,795).

Clinical indicator 10 = 
96 x 100

6,795 = 1.4% (95% CI 1.2% - 1.7%).

2. Maternity performance indicators, hospitals with at least 550 births per year
Six clinical indicators are presented below. Five are selected from The Australian Council on Healthcare Standards 
( ACHS  Clinical Indicator Users  Manual Version 2010 ) and are presented for hospitals with at least 550 births per 
year. Additionally, the sixth indicator presents the standardized perinatal mortality ratio.

These six indicators are as follows:

1. Proportion of selected primiparae who underwent induction of labour.

This was as defined for Clinical indicator 5 and was 43.4% for the state (and 43.5% for state hospitals) in 2015.

2. Caesarean section rate for selected primiparae.

This was as defined for Clinical indicator 6 and was 29.9% for the state (and 29.9% for state hospitals) in 2015.

3. VBAC: proportion of women who gave birth vaginally following a previous primary (first) caesarean 
section and no intervening births.

Numerator: Total number of women giving birth vaginally following a previous primary caesarean section (n=418).

Denominator:  Total number of women giving birth who have had a previous primary caesarean section and NO 
intervening pregnancies greater than 20 weeks gestation (n=2,672).

This was as defined as above and was 15.7% for the state (and 15.6% for state hospitals) in 2015.

4. Proportion of selected primiparae with an intact perineum following vaginal birth.

Numerator: Total number of selected primiparae with an intact perineum (n=336)

Denominator: Total number of selected primiparae giving birth vaginally (n=4,037)

This was as defined as above and was 8.4% for the state (and 8.3% for state hospitals) in 2015.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 70

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



5. TERM NICU: proportion of term babies admitted to neonatal intensive care (NICU) for reasons other than 
congenital abnormality.

Numerator: The number of term babies (37 weeks gestation or later) transferred/admitted to a neonatal intensive care 
unit for reasons other than congenital abnormality (n=126).

Denominator: The total number of term live babies born (n=18,093).

This was as defined as above and was 0.7% for the state (and 0.7% for state hospitals) in 2015.

6. SPMR: Standardized perinatal mortality ratio for all births.

This is as defined8 in the Pregnancy and Neonatal Care Bulletin 2015. It adjusts for the difference between the 
distribution of births by birthweight between the hospital and state hospital births. As perinatal mortality is much 
higher in babies of low birthweight, this adjustment ensures that a hospital is directly comparable with other hospitals 
and state hospitals as a whole if it has a higher proportion of low birthweight babies than state hospital births.

SPMR =
Observed number of death
Expected number of deaths X 100

To obtain the expected number of deaths for a hospital, the state hospital perinatal mortality rate for 2015 for each 
of the birthweight groups in Table 48 is applied to the number of births in each corresponding birthweight group for 
the hospital.  This gives an expected number of deaths in each birthweight group.  These expected deaths are then 
totalled to give a total number of expected deaths for the hospital.

SPMRs provided in this report for comparison between sites exclude deaths attributed to congenital abnormalities (as 
determined by the Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality Committee3), which are the least preventable, as well as 
terminations of pregnancy. An SPMR above 100 means that after adjustment for birthweight differences and deaths 
attributed to congenital abnormalities and terminations of pregnancy, perinatal mortality for that hospital is higher 
than that for state hospital births e.g. an adjusted SPMR of 120 means that it is 20% higher.

A 95% confidence interval (CI) which includes the value 100 in its range means that the hospital s perinatal mortality 
is not (statistically) significantly different from that for state hospital births for that year. The SPMRs and 95%CIs for 
individual hospitals and categories of hospitals have been programmed using indirect standardization methods.8

Statistics for the six maternity performance indicators for 2015 are provided in Figures 34-39 for the eight hospitals,  
A   H, with at least 550 births in 2015. SPMRs for the preceding five years combined, 2011-2015, are provided in 
Figure 40. Metropolitan teaching hospitals and Mount Gambier Hospital have been named with their permission  
and are as follows:

A.  Women s and Children s

B.  Flinders Medical Centre

C.  Lyell McEwin Hospital

D.  Mt Gambier Hospital

 
Figure 34: Induction of labour proportion for selected primiparae, South Australian hospitals  
with ?550 births per year, 2015

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

A B C D E F G H 

%
 

Hospital Induction of labour %  *SA hospitals = 43.5% 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  71

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



Figure 35: Caesarean section rate for selected primiparae, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per 
year, 2015

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

A B C D E F G H 

%
 

Hospital 

Caesarean section % *SA hospitals = 29.9% 

Figure 36: VBAC: Proportion of women who had a vaginal birth following a previous primary (first) 
caesarean section and no intervening births, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

A B C D E F G H 

%
 

Hospital 

VBAC % *SA hospitals = 15.6% 

Figure 37: Proportion of selected primiparae with an intact perineum after a vaginal birth, South Australian 
hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

A B C D E F G H 

%
 

Hospital 
Primip no repair %  *SA Hospitals = 8.3% 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 72

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



Figure 38: TERM NICU: proportion of term babies admitted to NICU for reasons other than congenital 
abnormality, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015

0.0 

0.2 

0.4 

0.6 

0.8 

1.0 

1.2 

1.4 

%
 

Term NICU %  *SA hospitals = 0.7% 

A B C D E F G H 

Hospital 

Figure 39: SPMR (Standardized Perinatal Mortality Ratio) for all births, South Australian hospitals with  
?550 births per year, 2015

0 

50 

100 

150 

200 

250 

300 

350

A B C D E F G H 

Hospital 

SPMR *SA hospitals  

SP
M

R

Figure 40: SPMR (Standardized Perinatal Mortality Ratio) for all births, South Australian hospitals with  
?550 births per year, 2011-2015

0

50

100

150

200

250

SPMR *SA hospitals

Hospital 

A B C D E F G H 

SP
M

R

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  73

Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators



VI. Trends In Perinatal Statistics In South Australia, 1981-2015
Perinatal statistics are presented in Tables 73 and 74 for both socio-demographic and obstetric aspects for each 
year from 2005-2014, as well as for 1981, when the perinatal data collection was commenced. Some features are 
illustrated in Fig 41-48 for the years 1985-2015. The trends noted between 1981 and 2015 are as follows:

1 The total fertility rate was 1.80 live births per woman, following a steady increase from 1.71 in 2000 to 1.91 live 
births per woman in 2008, 2009 and 2012.

2 The increase in the proportion of Asian women from 1.8% in 1981 to 13.7% in 2015 and of Aboriginal women 
from 1.5% in 1981 to 3.6% in 2015 (it was 3.5% in 2014).

3 The decrease in the proportion of teenage women giving birth from 7.8% in 1981 to 2.8% in 2015. Over the 
past decade, there has been a general decline in both the teenage birth and abortion rate. The teenage pregnancy 
rate in 2014 of 19.4per 1,000 women was the lowest recorded since 1970, when abortion statistics were first 
collected, enabling calculation of a pregnancy rate.

4 The increase in the age of women giving birth. The proportion of women who gave birth who were 35 years or 
older increased from 4.6% in 1981 to 20.3% in 2015, following a peak of 21.1% in 2008 and 2009. Amongst 
primiparous women the proportion in 1981 was 1.2%, and in 2015 it was 12.5%. The mean age among women 
giving birth increased from 26.55 years in 1981 to peak in 2012 at 30.21 years; in 2015 it was 30.1 years. The 
mean age among primiparous women which went from 24.42 years in 1981 and peaked in 2012 at 28.44 years 
remained steady at 28.14 years in 2015.

5 The proportion of single women giving birth peaked in 1996 at 14.9%, since which time there has been a gradual 
decrease and was 7.8% in 2015.

6 The proportion of births in country hospitals has gradually declined from 27.8 in 1981 to 24.9% in 1997 and was 
18.6% in 2015. The proportion of births in teaching hospitals gradually increased to 59.5% in 2015 following 
a low of 47.2% in 1991. In 2015 metropolitan private hospitals accounted for 21.5% of births.  The number of 
births in birthing units in teaching hospitals increased from 125 (0.6%) in 1992 to 1,144 (5.7%) in 2015. Home 
births increased from 44 (0.2%) in 1997 to 144 (0.7%) in 2010.The decrease in the reporting of homebirths 
noted in 2011 (64.4%) and 2012 (66.2%) has improved with 100 (91.7%) of an estimated 109 homebirths being 
reported to the unit.

7 The proportion of multiple births peaked at 3.6% of all births in 2002 and 2003, and in 2015 this proportion  
was 3.3% of all births.

8 The induction rate increased from 22.1% in 1981 to 32.5% in 2015. Forty-seven percent of inductions in 2015 
were performed for other than defined indications.

9 The fall in the proportion of normal spontaneous vaginal births (from 66.1% in 1981 to 53.1%) in 2015, breech 
births (from 1.1% to 0.3%) and forceps births (from 15.2% to 5.6%). The proportion delivered by ventouse 
increased from 0.7% to 6.9% in 2010, and was 5.9% in 2015, and by caesarean section, from 16.9% in 1981  
to 35% in 2015. 

10 The gradual increase in the proportion of low birthweight births (&lt;2,500 grams) from 5.8% in 1981 to 7.7% in 
2013 (it was 7.6%in 2015). Amongst liveborn babies, the proportion of low birthweight births was 7.0% in  
2015, compared with 6.0% in 1991. The proportion of preterm births also increased from 5.5% in 1981 to  
9.6% in 2015. 

11 The proportion of births with congenital abnormalities identified before discharge from hospital after birth has 
been relatively stable at 2.3%-2.8% during the last decade and was 2.6% in 2015.

12 The increase in the proportion of babies utilising Level II care from 6.7% in 1982 to 16.9% in 2015 (it was 15.9 
in 2014). The proportion of babies utilising neonatal intensive care has decreased from 3.3% in 1981 to 2.9% 
in 2015, while the proportion using paediatric intensive care remained at 0.2%. The proportion in hospital at 28 
days has been between 2.0% and 2.4% since 2005 (2.1% in 2015). 

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 74

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia, 1981-2015



13 The considerable fall in the perinatal mortality rate, despite the increasing proportion of preterm births. The 
perinatal mortality rate for national statistics (for babies of at least 500g birthweight or 22 weeks gestation 
if birthweight unavailable) has fallen from 11.6 in 1981 to 5.2 per 1,000 births in 2015, while the rate for 
international statistics (for births of 1,000g or 28 weeks if birthweight unavailable) has fallen from 7.2 to 3.0 per 
1,000 births during the same period. The fall in this neonatal mortality rate (for early neonatal deaths) has been 
particularly outstanding, reaching 1.7 per 1000 live births in 2015. The fall in perinatal mortality is reflected in 
the standardized perinatal mortality ratio which has been calculated in Table 48 for each year utilising perinatal 
mortality rates for 500g birthweight groups for the years 1981-1989 combined as the standard. It was 59.9 in 
2015 compared with 117.6 in 1981. 

Table 73: Socio-demographic aspects of perinatal statistics, South Australia, 1981 and 2006   2015

Characteristic
Year

1981 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 Total births 19,052 18,803 19,757 19,970 19,901 20,002 20,344 20,666 20,263 20,749 20,154

2 Live births 18,905 18,663 19,624 19,819 19,761 19,883 20,194 20,528 20,125 20,604 20,001

3 Women who 
gave birth 18,857 18,519 19,471 19,672 19,604 19,667 20,043 20,338 19,925 20,448 19,818

4 Total fertility 
rate per 
woman

1.75 1.82 1.91 1.91 1.87 1.84 1.89 1.91 1.85 1.83 1.80

5 Place of birth (%)

 Teaching hospital 52.2% 52.1% 52.6% 53.2% 53.7% 54.3% 55.5% 56.8% 57.3% 57.8% 59.5%

 Private hospital 19.7% 26.7% 26.6% 26.5% 25.7% 25.6% 24.1% 23.3% 22.8% 22.5% 21.5%

 Country hospital 27.8% 20.8% 20.2% 20.3% 19.9% 19.3% 19.9% 19.4% 19.3% 19.3% 18.6%

 Domiciliary* 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.7% 0.7% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.5% 0.5%

(65) (87) (107) (101) (134) (144) (96) (95) (114) (102) (100)

6 Race (%)

 Aboriginal 1.5% 3.0% 3.0% 3.2% 3.1% 3.2% 3.5% 3.3% 3.6% 3.5% 3.6%

(Women who  
gave birth) (277) (548) (578) (624) (607) (625) (693) (662) (717) (712) (718)

(Births to 
Aboriginal 
mothers)

(280) (559) (590) (637) (618) (630) (703) (669) (729) (720) (732)

(Babies identified 
as Aboriginal) (904) (952) (947) (1,001)

 Asian 1.8% 5.1% 6.2% 7.0% 8.1% 9.6% 11.1% 12.1% 12.0% 12.9% 13.7%

7 Age

 Mean age (years) 26.55 30.01 30.05 30.11 30.14 30.14 29.69 30.21 29.8 30.0 30.1

 Teenage  (%) 7.8% 4.8% 4.6% 4.5% 4.1% 4.0% 4.0% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 2.8%

?35 years  (%) 4.6% 20.4% 20.2% 21.1% 21.1% 20.5% 20.6% 20.4% 19.8% 20.6% 20.3%

8 Marital status (%) 20.3%
Never married 7.6% 11.7% 11.0% 10.7% 10.0% 9.6% 9.2% 9.2% 8.8% 7.8% 7.8%

Widowed/ 
divorced/  
separated

2.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.0% 1.3% 1.3% 1.1% 1.2%

Single (9.6%) (13.0%) (12.5%) (11.9%) (11.2%) (10.9%) (10.2%) (10.5%) (10.1%) (8.9%) (9.0%)

9 Primiparae

 Mean age (years) 24.42 28.20 28.30 28.24 28.27 28.34 27.92 28.44 28.20 28.4 28.5

 Teenage 15.4% 9.5% 8.9% 8.8% 8.4% 7.8% 7.8% 7.8% 6.7% 6.3% 5.6%

?35 years 1.2% 12.6% 12.5% 12.7% 12.8% 12.2% 12.0% 11.8% 12.4% 12.9% 12.5%

*includes unplanned home births

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  75

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia, 1981-2015



Table 74: Obstetric aspects of perinatal statistics, South Australia, 1981 and 2006   2015

Characteristic
Year

1981 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 Plurality

Multiple births 
(%) 2.0% 3.0% 2.9% 3.0% 3.0% 3.3% 2.9% 3.2% 3.3% 2.9% 3.3%

Twins (363) (552) (544) (592) (578) (644) (586) (636) (640) (574) (648)

Triplets (21) (12) (21) (3) (12) (15) (12) (15) (27) (21) (18)

Quadruplets (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (4) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

2 Induction of labour (%) 22.1% 28.9% 29.8% 28.6% 29.4% 29.6% 31.2% 30.9% 32.5% 32.2% 32.5%

3 Method of birth

Normal 
spontaneous 66.1% 56.0% 56.0% 56.0% 55.4% 55.2% 54.7% 54.2% 53.9% 54.1% 53.1%

Elective caesarean 8.2% 15.5% 15.3% 15.4% 15.7% 15.5% 15.8% 15.9% 16.2% 16.6% 17.2%

Emerg caesarean 8.7% 17.4% 17.1% 16.8% 16.7% 16.7% 17.3% 17.9% 17.8% 17.3% 17.8%

Forceps 15.2% 3.7% 4.1% 4.2% 4.6% 5.4% 5.7% 5.5% 5.6% 5.3% 5.6%

Breech 1.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3%

Ventouse 0.7% 7.0% 7.1% 7.1% 7.2% 6.9% 5.9% 6.0% 5.9% 6.3% 5.9%

Total caesarean (16.9%) (32.9%) (32.3%) (32.2%) (32.4%) (32.2%) (33.2%) (33.8%) (34.0%) (33.9%) (35.1%)

4 Birthweight &lt;2,500g 5.8% 7.0% 6.9% 7.0% 7.3% 7.2% 7.5% 7.7% 7.7% 7.1% 7.6%

Singletons 4.9% 5.5% 5.5% 5.5% 5.7% 5.6% 6.2% 6.1% 5.8% 5.7% 5.9%

Multiples 52.1% 53.4% 53.6% 53.4% 59.8% 54.1% 51.9% 56.8% 63.0% 57.2% 59.6%

5 Gestational age &lt;37 weeks 5.5% 8.2% 8.5% 8.6% 9.0% 8.9% 9.2% 9.4% 9.8% 9.2% 9.6%

Singletons 4.8% 6.8% 7.1% 7.0% 7.2% 7.2% 7.5% 7.6% 7.7% 7.5% 7.6%

Multiples 41.1% 54.4% 57.2% 59.3% 67.5% 58.4% 61.5% 64.7% 70.6% 69.2% 69.4%

6 Congenital abnormalities 3.4% 2.3% 2.6% 2.7% 2.7% 2.8% 3.0% 2.7% 2.8% 2.7% 2.6%

7 Level II care Na 15.3% 16.1% 15.4% 15.3% 16.0% 16.2% 16.7% 16.5% 15.9% 16.9%

8 Level III care 3.3% 2.5% 2.3% 2.5% 2.9% 2.5% 2.6% 2.7% 2.7% 2.5% 2.9%

9 W&amp;CH ICU care Na 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%

10
Hospitalisation 
for 28 days or 
more

4.2% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2% 2.2% 2.0% 2.2% 2.4% 2.4% 2.1% 2.1%

11 Neonatal deaths 96 38 55 51 49 44 44 46 45     39 35

12 Stillbirths 147 140 132 151 140 119 150 138 138 145 153

13 Perinatal deaths 243 178 188+ 202 189 163 194 184 183 184 188

14 Perinatal mortality rate per 1,000 births

?400g/20 weeks 12.8 9.5 9.5 10.1 9.5 8.1 7.4 8.9 6.6 8.9 9.3

?500g/22 weeks* 11.6 4.9 5.2 5.3 4.9 4.4 5.3 4.1 5.2 4.6 5.2

?1,000g/28 
weeks* 7.2 3.1 2.6 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.2 2.1 2.8 2.4 3.2

15
Standardized 
perinatal 
mortality ratio

117.6 63.0 65.1 67.3 65.2 57.6 62.9 57.6 59.4 60.0 59.9

* only neonatal deaths within the first 7 days of life are included, as recommended by the World Health Organisation for national and  
international statistics.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 76

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia, 1981-2015



Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia (SA), 1985   2015

Figure 41: Percentage of teenage women among women giving birth in South Australia, 1985-2015

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Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  77

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia, 1981-2015



Figure 44: Percentage of Aboriginal women and Asian women among women giving birth in South Australia, 
1985-2015

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Figure 45: Percentage of women never married and with no de facto partner among women giving birth in  
South Australia, 1985-2015

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Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 78

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia, 1981-2015



Figure 47: Percentage of low birthweight babies among births in South Australian, 1985-2015

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Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  79

Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia, 1981-2015



VII. Summary Statistics for 2015
These statistics refer to all live births as well as stillbirths of at least 400g birthweight or 20 weeks gestation.  
Fifty eight babies of less than 400g birthweight have been included.

1. Number of births

Reported number of births (from monthly notifications): 20,154

Notified births with Supplementary Birth Records (SBRs): 20,154

Notified women who gave birth with SBRs: 19,818

Crude birth rate: 11.8 live births per 1,000 population.  

Total fertility rate: 1.80 live births per woman

2. Place of birth

Home births: 95 home births in all (0.5%), of which 125 were planned home births (0.5% of births in the state). 

Metropolitan teaching hospitals: 12,034 (60.0%)

Metropolitan private hospitals: 4,327 (21.6%)

Country hospitals: 3,693 (18.4%)

3. Sex

Males 10,320, Females 9,834. Male: Female sex ratio = 1.05:1

4. Plurality and condition at birth

Condition at birth

Plurality

TotalSingleton Twins Triplets

Live birth 19,354 630 17 20,001

Stillbirth 134 18 1 153

Total 19,488 648 18 20,154

5. Race of women

Race Number of women %

Caucasian 15,014 75.8

Aboriginal 718 3.6

Asian 2,716 13.7

Other 1,370 6.9

Total 19,818 100.0

6. Obstetric interventions in 20,448 women who gave birth

Induction of labour was performed for 6,437 women (32.5%) and labour was augmented for another 3,367 women 
(17.0%) who gave birth.

Forceps were utilised for 1,114 women (5.6%), ventouse in 1,161 (5.9%) and episiotomy was performed for 2,830 
women who gave birth (14.3%, or 21.9% of women who gave birth vaginally).

Caesarean section was performed in 6,947 women who gave birth (35.1%), of which 3,417 (17.2%) were elective, 
and 3,530 (17.8%) emergency operations.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 80

Summary Statistics for 2015



7. Low birthweight (&lt;2,500g)

Number of singleton births of low birthweight =1,143 (5.9% of singleton births).

Number of multiple births of low birthweight =397 (59.6% of multiple births).

Number of all births of low birthweight =1,540 (7.6% of all births).

8. Congenital anomalies

Births notified with congenital anomalies: 516 (2.6%).

9. Perinatal mortality rates (numbers of deaths in parentheses)

Birthweight/Gestation Stillbirth rate per 1,000 births
Neonatal death rate per 

1,000 live births
Perinatal mortality rate 

per 1,000 births

1 ?400g/20 weeks (153)    7.6 (35)    1.7 (188)    9.3

2 ?500g/22 weeks if birthweight 
unavailable

(WHO National Statistics*)
(81)    4.0 (18)    0.9* (99)    4.9*

3 ?1,000g/28 weeks if birthweight 
unavailable

(WHO International/ Standard 
Statistics*)

(50)    2.5 (9)    0.5* (59)     3.0*

* Only neonatal deaths within the first 7 days of life are included.

10. Terminations of pregnancy

Total number of induced abortions notified: 4,439

Induced abortion rate per 1,000 women (15-44 years): 13.5

Total induced abortion rate (life-time) per 1,000 women (15-44 years): 403.0 

Total first induced abortion rate (life-time) per 1,000 women (15-44 years): 256.3

Induced abortion proportion: 0.18

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  81

Summary Statistics for 2015



References
1. Scheil W, Scott J, Chan A. South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection. Guidelines for the Supplementary Birth 

Record. Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, South Australian Department of Health, 2012.

2. The South Australian Birth Defects Register. 2008/2009 Annual Report. Adelaide: Women s and Children s 
Hospital, Children, Youth and Women s Health Service, 2015.

3. Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality Committee. Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in South Australia 
2015. Adelaide: SA Health, Government of South Australia, 2017.

4. Statewide Service Strategy Division. Standards for Maternal and Neonatal Services in SA 2010. Adelaide: 
Department of Health, 2010.

5. South Australian Health Commission. Report of the South Australian Birthing Services Working Group. Adelaide: 
Social Health and Policy Development Branch, South Australian Health Commission, 1994.

6. South Australian Abortion Reporting Committee. Annual Report - For the Year 2015. Adelaide:  SA Health, 
Government of South Australia, 2017.

7. South Australian Health Commission Epidemiology Branch. Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcome: 
determination from a perinatal statistics collection. Adelaide: South Australian Health Commission, December 
1986.

8. Mallett R, Knox EG. Standardized perinatal mortality ratios: technique, utility and interpretation. Community 
Med 1979; 1: 6-13.

9. AHMC (Australian Health Ministers  Conference) 2011. National Maternity Services Plan. Canberra: Australian 
Government Department of Health and Ageing.

10. AIHW National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit and AIHW 2013. National core maternity indicators. 
Cat. no. PER 58. Canberra: AIHW.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 82

References



Publications
The following is a list of publications from 1985 from the Pregnancy Outcome Unit or which utilised data from the Unit.

Annual Reports
1. Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia (from 1985), website: www.sahealth.sa.gov.au

2. Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in South Australia. Annual Report of the Maternal, Perinatal &amp; Infant 
Mortality Committee (from 1985), website: www.sahealth.sa.gov.au

3. Committee appointed to examine and report on abortions notified in South Australia Annual Report (from 1985 
to 2002); South Australian Abortion Reporting Committee Annual Report (from 2003).

4. Pregnancy and Neonatal Care Bulletin (from 1985): for individual hospitals.

The Unit provides birth defects data to the South Australian Birth Defects Register at the Women s and Children s 
Hospital and perinatal and birth defects data to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal 
Statistics Unit in Sydney for their reports.

These reports are as follows:

1. The South Australian Birth Defects Register Annual Report (from 1986).

 South Australian Birth Defects Register, Public Health Research Unit, Women s and Children s Hospital, 
Children, Youth and Women s Health  Service, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, South Australia 5006. 

 Telephone (08) 81616518 
Website: www.wch.sa.gov.au/services/az/other/phru/birthdefect.html

2. Australia s Mothers and Babies (from 1991) and 

3. Congenital anomalies in Australia  (from 1981) 

 AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit, Sydney Children s Hospital, Level 2, McNevin Dickson Building, 
Randwick Hospital Campus, Randwick NSW 2031. 

 Telephone (02) 9382 1014   
Website: www.npsu.unsw.edu.au 

Other reports/papers
1. Birth defects

1. Jonas O, Stern LM, Macharper T. A South Australian Study of Pregnancy and Birth Risk Factors associated 
with Cerebral Palsy. Int J Rehab Research 1989; 12 (2): 159-166.

2. Chan A, Robertson EF, Haan EA, Keane RJ, Ranieri E, Carney A. Prevalence of neural tube defects in South 
Australia, 1966   91: effectiveness and impact of prenatal diagnosis. BMJ 1993; 307: 703-6.

3. Bower C, Norwood F, Knowles S, Chambers H, Haan E, Chan A. Amniotic band syndrome: a population-
based study in two Australian States. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1993; 7: 395-403.

4. Chan A, Robertson E, Haan E, Ranieri E, Keane R. The sensitivity of ultrasound and serum alpha-fetoprotein 
in population-based antenatal screening for neural tube defects in South Australia 1986-1991. Br J Obstet 
Gynaecol 1995; 102 :370-376.

5. Chan A, Keane RJ, Hanna M, Abbott M. Terminations of pregnancy for exposure to oral retinoids in South 
Australia, 1985-1993. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995; 35 : 422-426.

6. Byron-Scott R, Chan A, Haan EA, Bower C, Scott H, Clark K. A population-based study of abdominal wall 
defects in South Australia and Western Australia. Proceedings, 14th Annual  Congress Australian Perinatal 
Society, Adelaide, March 1996, P82.

7. Chan A, Hanna M, Abbott M, Keane RJ. Oral retinoids and pregnancy. MJA 1996;165: 164-167.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  83

Publications



8. Chan A, McCaul KA, Cundy P, Haan EA, Byron-Scott R. Perinatal risk factors for developmental dysplasia of 
the hip. Arch Dis Child 1997; 76 : F94   F100.

9. Yiv BC, Saidin R, Cundy PJ, Tgetgel JD, Aguilar J, McCaul KA, Keane RJ, Chan A, Scott H. Developmental 
dysplasia of the hip in South Australia in 1991: Prevalence and risk factors. J. Paediatr Child Health 1997; 
33: 151-6.

10. Cheffins T, Chan A, Keane RJ. The effects of rubella immunisation in South Australia. Proceedings, Rights to 
Health 29th Annual Conference, Public Health Association of Australia Inc., Melbourne, 5-8 October 1997.

11. Byron-Scott R, Haan E, Chan A, Bower C, Scott H, Clark K. A population-based study of abdominal wall 
defects in South Australia and Western Australia. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1998; 12: 136-151.

12. Cheffins T,  Chan A, Keane RJ, Hann EA, Hall R. The impact of rubella immunisation on the incidence of 
rubella, congenital rubella syndrome and rubella-related terminations of pregnancy in South Australia. Br J 
Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 105: 998-1004.

13. Chan A, McCaul K, Keane RJ, Haan EA. Effect of parity, gravidity, previous miscarriage, and age on the risk 
of Down s syndrome : population-based study. BMJ 1998; 317: 923-4.

14. Byron-Scott R. et al. A validation study of congenital heart defects in South Australia. Proceedings, 
Australian Birth Defects Society. Annual Scientific Meeting. Sydney 1998.

15. Byron-Scott R. et al. A comparison of selected birth defects in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal babies in 
South Australia. Proceedings, Australian Birth Defects Society. Annual Scientific Meeting, Sydney 1998.

16. Byron-Scott R. Richardson M, Hiller J, Chan A, Haan E, Knight B, Adams P. The prevalence and validation 
of congenital heart defects in South Australia, 1986-94. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Congress of the 
Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, Melbourne, 1999. P153.

17. Chan A, Cundy PJ, Foster BK, Keane RJ, Byron-Scott R. Late diagnosis of congenital dislocation of the hip 
and presence of a screening programme. South Australian population-based study. Lancet 1999;354: 
1514-17.

18. Chan A, Cundy PJ, Foster BK, Keane RJ, Byron-Scott R. Screening for congenital dislocation of the hip 
(letter). Lancet 2000;355:232-33.

19. Chan A, Pickering J, Haan EA, Netting M, Burford A, Johnson A, Keane RJ.  Folate before pregnancy : the 
impact of a South Australian health promotion campaign on women and health professionals. Western 
Australian Birth Defects Registry Twentieth Anniversary Scientific Symposium April 27-28, 2000. Perth, 
Western Australia. Teratology 2000;62: 365.

20. Cheffins T, Chan A, Haan EA, Ranieri E, Ryall RG, Keane RJ, Byron-Scott R, Scott H, Gjerde EM, Nguyen 
A-M, Ford JH, Sykes S. The impact of maternal serum screening on the birth  revalence of Down s syndrome 
and the use of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in South Australia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 
2000;107:1453-9.

21. Chan A, Pickering J, Haan EA, Netting M, Burford A, Johnson A, Keane RJ.  Folate before pregnancy :the 
impact on women and health professionals of a population-based health promotion campaign in South 
Australia. MJA 2001; 174:631-636.

22. Chan A, Foster BK, Cundy PJ. Invited commentary. Problems in the diagnosis of neonatal hip instablity. Acta 
Paediatr 2001;90:836-9.

23. Metz MP, Ranieri E, Gerace RL, Priest KR, Luke CG, Chan A. Newborn screening in South Australia: is it 
universal? MJA 2003;179:412-415.

24. Chan A. Invited commentary: Parity and the risk of Down syndrome   caution in interpretation. Am J 
Epidemiol 2003;158:509-511.

25. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Hague WM, Rudzki Z, Sharpe P, Chan A, Dekker GA. Fetal thrombophilic 
polymorphisms are not a risk factor for cerebral palsy. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 8th 
Annual Congress, Convention Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia, 15th-18th March 2004, A41.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 84

Publications



26. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Rudzki Z, Hague WM, Haan EA, Sharpe P, Priest K, Chan A, Dekker GA for the 
South Australian Cerebral Palsy Research Group. The prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in a Caucasian 
Australian population. Pathology  2005;37:160-163.

27. Byron-Scott R, Sharpe P, Hasler C, Cundy P, Hirte C, Chan A, Scott H, Baghurst PB, Haan E. A South 
Australian population-based study of congenital talipes equivarus. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol  2005;19:227-
237.

28. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Hague WM, Haan E, Priest K, Chan A, Dekker GA  for the South Australian 
Cerebral Palsy Research Group. Associations between inherited thrombophilias, gestational age and 
cerebral palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1437.e1-1437.e12.

29. Sharpe PB, Chan A, Haan EA, Hiller JE. Maternal diabetes and congenital anomalies in South Australia 
1986-2000: a population-based cohort study. Birth Defects Research Part A  Clin Mol Teratol 2005:73;605-
611.

30. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Goldwater PN, Haan EA, Priest K, Dekker GA for the South Australian Cerebral 
Palsy Research Group. Neurotropic viruses and cerebral palsy: a population bases case-control study. BMJ 
,doi:10.1136/bmj.38668.616806.3A (published 6 January 2006).

31. Sharpe PB, Mulpuri K, Chan A, Cundy P. Differences in risk factors between early and late diagnosed DDH. 
Arch Dis Child 2006;91:F158-162.

32. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Goldwater PN, Haan EA, Priest K, Dekker GA for the South Australian Cerebral 
Palsy Research Group. The association between inherited cytokine polymorphisms and cerebral palsy. Am J 
Obstet Gynecol 2006;194: 674.e1-674.e11.

33. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Janssen NG, Kist WJ, Hague WM, Haan EA, Goldwater PN, Priest K, Dekker GA 
for the South Australian Cerebral Palsy Research Group. Associations between fetal inherited thrombophilia 
and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol  2006; 194: 947.e1-947.e10.

34. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Dekker GA, Goldwater PN, Dambrosia JM, Munroe DJ, Tsang S,  Stewart C, 
Nelson KB. Genetic polymorphisms and spontaneous preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:384-391.

35. Muller PR, Cocciolone R, Haan EA, Wilkinson C, Scott H, Sage L, Bird R, Hutchinson R, Chan A. Trends in 
state/population-based Down syndrome screening and invasive prenatal testing with the introduction of 
first-trimester combined Down syndrome screening, South Australia, 1995-2005. Am J Obstet Gynecol 
2007;196:315.e1-315.e7.

36. Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Goldwater PN, Haan EA, Priest K, Dekker GA for the South Australian Cerebral 
Palsy Research Group. Mannose-binding lectin haplotypes may be associated with cerebral palsy only after 
perinatal viral exposure. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:509.e1-509.e8.

37. Khoo NS, van Essen P, Richardson M, Robertson T. Effectiveness of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart 
defects in South Australia: a population analysis 1999-2003. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2008;48:559-563.

38. Chan AC, van Essen P, Scott H, Haan EA, Sage L, Scott J, Gill TK, Nguyen A-M T. Folate awareness and the 
prevalence of neural tube defects in South Australia, 1966-2007. MJA 2008;189: 566-569.

39. Djukic M, Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Goldwater PN, Haan EA, McMichael G et al. Genetic susceptibility to 
viral exposure may increase the risk of cerebral palsy. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2009: 49:247-253.

40. De Souza, Halliday J, Chan A, Bower C, Morris JK. Recurrence risks for trisomies 13,18, and 21. Am J Med 
Genet Part A 149A:2716 2722.

41. Davies MJ, Moore VM, Willson KJ, Van Essen P, Priest K, Scott H, et al. Reproductive technologies and the 
risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1803-13. PubMed PMID: 22559061.

42. Flood L, Scheil W, Nguyen A, Sage L, Scott J. An increase in neural tube defect notifications, South 
Australia, 2009 2010. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 2013, 4 (2). doi:10.5365/
wpsar.2012.3.3.006.

43. Gibson CS, Scott H, Haan E, Scheil W. Age Range for Inclusion Affects Ascertainment by Birth Defects 
Registers. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 00:000 000, 2016.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  85

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44. Davies MJ, Rumbold AR, Whitrow MJ, Willson KJ, Scheil WK, Mol BW, &amp; Moore VM. Spontaneous loss of a 
co-twin and the risk of birth defects after assisted conception. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health 
and Disease, 2016, 1-7. doi:10.1017/S2040174416000301.

45. Davies MJ, Rumbold AR, Marino JL, Willson K, Giles LC, Whitrow MJ, Scheil W, Moran LJ, Thompson JG, 
Lane M, Moore VM. Maternal factors and the risk of birth defects after IVF and ICSI: a whole of population 
cohort study. BJOG 2016; DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14365.

46. Studer K, Williams N, Antoniou G, Gibson C, Scott H, Scheil WK,  Cundy PJ. Increase in late diagnosed 
developmental dysplasia of the hip in South Australia: Risk factors, proposed solutions. Medical Journal of 
Australia, 2016, 204(6), 240.e1-240.e6. doi:10.5694/mja15.01082.

47. Constantine S, David D, Anderson P. The use of obstetric ultrasound in the antenatal diagnosis of 
craniosynostosis: We need to do better. Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine AJUM April 2016 0 
(0) 1.

2. Termination of pregnancy

1. Hart G, Macharper T. Medical termination of pregnancy in South Australia 1970-1984. Adelaide: South 
Australian Health Commission, 1986.

2. Chan A, Taylor A. Medical Termination of Pregnancy in South Australia - The First 20 Years 1970-1989. 
Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, South Australian Health Commission, December 1991.

3. Chan A, McColl M, Versteeg J, Gameau B, Scanlan C, Pridmore B. A South Australian Study on 
Contraception and Abortion. Public and Environmental Health Service, South Australian Health Commission 
and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, March 1994.

4. Hart G, Macharper T. Clinical aspects of induced abortion in South Australia from 1970-1984. Aust. NZ J 
Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 26: 219-224.

5. Hart G, Macharper T. Induced abortion trends in South Australia. Am J Public Health 1987; 77: 200-202.

6. Chan A, Keane RJ. Prevalence of induced abortion in a reproductive lifetime. Am J Epidemiol 
2004;159:475-480.

7. Chan A, Sage LC. Estimating Australia s abortion rates 1985-2003. MJA  2005;182:447-452.

3. Perinatal epidemiology

1. Connon AF, Macharper T. Teenage pregnancies in South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Health 
Commission, September 1986.

2. South Australian Health Commission, Epidemiology Branch:  Characteristics of pregnancies and births 
among migrant women in South Australia. Adelaide : South Australian Health Commission, October 1986.

3. South Australian Health Commission, Epidemiology Branch. Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcome: 
determination from a perinatal statistics collection. Adelaide: South Australian Health Commission, 
December 1986.

4. South Australian Health Commission, Epidemiology Branch. Variation in perinatal risk by place of residence 
of mother in South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Health Commission, December 1986.

5. South Australian Health Commission, Epidemiology Branch. Variations in Perinatal Risk by Hospital of Birth 
in South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Health Commission, January 1987.

6. South Australian Health Commission, Epidemiology Branch. Aboriginal Births in South Australia, 1981-
1986: An Analysis of Perinatal Outcomes, Adelaide: South Australian Health Commission, May 1988.

7. South Australian Health Commission, Epidemiology Branch: Pregnancy Outcome Attributes by Postcode: 
South Australia 1981-1986. South Australian Health Commission, Adelaide: August 1988.

8. Jonas O, Scott J, Chan A, Macharper T, Lister J. A validation study of the 1986 perinatal data collection 
form. Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, South Australian Health Commission, 1991.

9. South Australian Cancer Registry. Associations between perinatal characteristics and risk of childhood 
cancer: South Australian cancer cases born in 1981-1993. In: Epidemiology of Cancer in South Australia. 
Incidence, Mortality and Survival 1977 to 1994. Adelaide South Australian Health Commission, 1995.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 86

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10. Taylor A, Twisk A-M, Chan A. Perinatal risk factors by postcode in South Australia 1989-1992. Epidemiology 
Branch, South Australian Health Commission, Adelaide: June 1995.

11. Pregnancy Outcome Unit. Perinatal Statistics Collection. Guidelines for the Supplementary Birth Record. 
Adelaide: South Australian Health Commission, December 1997.

12. McLean A, Scott J, Keane RJ, Sage L, Chan A. Validation of the 1994 South Australian perinatal data 
collection form. Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, Department of Human Services, 2001.

13. Hart G, MacHarper T, Moore D, Roder D. Aboriginal pregnancies and births in South Australia. MJA 1985; 
143: S54-56.

14. Chan A, Roder D, Macharper, T. Obstetric Profiles of Immigrant Women from Non-English Speaking 
Countries in South Australia, 1981-83. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1988; 28: 90-95.

15. Jonas O, Roder D, Esterman A, Macharper T, Chan A. Pregnancy and Birth Risk Factors for Intellectual 
Disability in South Australia. Eur J Epidemiol 1989; 5: 322-327.

16. Jonas O, Chan A, Macharper T, Roder D. Pregnancy and Perinatal Factors associated with persistently low 
Apgar scores: an analysis of the birth records of infants born in South Australia. Eur J Epidemiol 1990; 6: 
136-141.

17. Crotty M, Ramsay AT, Smart R, Chan A. Planned Homebirths in South Australia 1976-1987 MJA 1990; 153: 
664-671.

18. Jonas O, Chan A, Roder D, Macharper T. Pregnancy Outcomes in primigravid women aged 35 years and 
over in South Australia, 1986-1988.  MJA 1991; 154: 246-249.

19. Zhang B, Chan A. Teenage Pregnancy in South Australia, 1986-1988. Aust. NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1991; 31: 
291-298.

20. Jonas O, Roder D, Chan A. The Association of Maternal and Socioeconomic Characteristics in Metropolitan 
Adelaide with Medical, Obstetric and Labour Complications and Pregnancy Outcomes. Aust NZ J Obstet 
Gynaecol 1992; 32: 1-5.

21. Chan A, Roder D, Priest K, Esterman A. A perinatal perspective on South Australia in the 1980s. MJA 1992; 
157: 515-518.

22. Jonas O, Roder D, Chan A. The association of low socio-economic status in Metropolitan Adelaide with 
maternal demographic and obstetric characteristics and pregnancy outcome. Eur J Epidemiol 1992; 8:708.

23. Jonas O, Roder D. Breech Presentation in South Australia, 1987-1989. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1993; 33: 
17-21.

24. Scott J, Chan A. Planned birthing unit deliveries in South Australia. Proceedings, 14th Annual Congress 
Australian Perinatal Society, Adelaide, March 1996, P21.

25. Dal Grande E, Chan A, Keane R. Asian, but different: Obstetric characteristics of women born in Vietnam 
and Philippines who delivered in South Australia in 1991-1994. Proceedings, 14th Annual Congress 
Australian Perinatal Society, Adelaide, March 1996, P22.

26. Keane R, Dal Grande E, Chan A, McCaul K. Episiotomy   a decline in the cutting edge. Proceedings, 14th 
Annual Congress Australian Perinatal Society, Adelaide, March 1996, P75.

27. Chan A, McPhee AJ. A safer leap into this dangerous world. Lancet 1996; 348 (suppl II) :12.

28. Carter JR, Hiller JE, Ryan P, Chan A. The Association between maternal age and preterm births to 
primiparous women in South Australia, 1991-1993, Proceedings, First Annual Congress, Perinatal Society of 
Australia and New Zealand, Fremantle, Western Australia, 16-24 March 1997.

29. Zhang B, Hiller JE, Chan A. Asthma in pregnancy in South Australia. Proceedings, First Annual Congress, 
Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, Fremantle, Western Australia, 16-24 March 1997.

30. Roder D, Nguyen A-M, Chan A. Trends in perinatal characteristics in South Australia, 1981 to 1994, by 
place of residence of mother. Aust NZ J Public Health 1997; 21: 483-8.

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31. Zhang B, Hiller JE, Chan A. Asthma in pregnancy: Association with Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Proceedings 
of the 3rd Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, Melbourne, 1999, A113.

32. McLean AP, Hiller JE, Chan A. Maternal epilepsy and fetal outcomes in South Australia. Perinatal Society 
of Australia and New Zealand 4th Annual Congress. Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, 
Australia, 12-15 March 2000, P192.

33. Chan A, Keane RJ, Robinson JS. The contribution of maternal smoking to preterm birth, small for 
gestational age and low birthweight among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal births in South Australia. MJA 
2001;174: 389-93.

34. van der Klis KAM, Westenberg L, Chan A, Dekker G, Keane RJ. Teenage pregnancy: trends,characteristics 
and outcomes in South Australia and Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health 2002; 26: 125-31.

35. Westenberg L, van der Klis KAM, Chan A, Dekker G, Keane RJ. Aboriginal teenage pregnancies compared 
with non-Aboriginal in South Australia 1995-1999. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2002;42: 187-191.

36. Wang JX, Knottnerus A-M, Schuit G, Norman RJ, Chan A, Dekker GA. Surgically obtained sperm and risk of 
gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2002;359: 673-4.

37. Jacobs DJ, Vreeburg SA, Dekker GA, Heard AR, Priest KR, Chan A. Risk factors for hypertension during 
pregnancy in South Australia. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 3: 421-428.

38. Heard AR, Dekker GA, Chan A, Jacobs DJ, Vreeburg SA, Priest KR. Hypertension during pregnancy in South 
Australia, Part 1: Pregnancy outcomes. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 404-409.

39. Vreeburg SA, Jacobs DJ, Dekker GA, Heard AR, Priest KR, Chan A. Hypertension during pregnancy in South 
Australia, Part 2: Risk factors for adverse maternal and/or perinatal outcome   results of multivariable 
analysis. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;44: 410-418.

40. Leahy K, Elliot E, Kennare R, Chan A. Characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of first time mothers aged 
35 years and over compared to younger first time mothers in South Australia 1991-2002. Before and 
Beyond Birth. Abstract Book. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 9th Annual Congress. Adelaide 
Convention Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, 13-16 March 2005, A144.

41. Kennare R, Heard A, Chan A. Substance use during pregnancy: risk factors and obstetric and perinatal 
outcomes in South Australia. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol  2005;45:220-225.

42. Freak-Poli R, Chan A, Tucker G, Street J. Previous abortion and risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Perinatal 
Society of Australia and New Zealand 10th Annual Congress. Perth Convention Exhibition Centre, Perth, 
Western Australia, 3-6 April 2006, FC17.1, p 165.

43. Scott J, Chan A. South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection. Guidelines for the Supplementary Birth 
Record. Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Statistics Unit, South Australian Department of Health, 2006.

44. Budde MP, De Lange TE, Dekker GA, Chan  A, Nguyen AM. Risk factors for placental abruption in a socio-
economically disadvantaged region. J Matern Fetal Neonat Med 2007 Sep; 20(9):687-93. 

45. Freak-Poli R, Chan A, Tucker G, Street J. Previous abortion and risk of pre-term birth: a population study. J 
Matern-Fetal Neonat Med 2009;22(1):1-7.

46. Kennare R, Keirse M, Tucker G, Chan A. Planned home and hospital births in South Australia, 1991 2006: 
differences in outcomes. MJA 2010; 192: 76 80.

47. Dodd J, Grivell R, Nguyen AM, Chan A, Robinson J. Maternal and perinatal health outcomes by body mass 
index category. ANZJOG 2011: 51,2: 136 140.

48. Grivell RM, Reilly AJ, Oakey H, Chan AC, Dodd JM. Maternal and neonatal outcomes following induction of 
labor: a cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012; 91:198 203.

49. Ludford I, Scheil W, Tucker G, Grivell R. Pregnancy outcomes for nulliparous women of advanced maternal 
age in South Australia, 1998-2008. The Australian &amp; New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics &amp; Gynaecology. 
2012 Jun;52(3):235-41. PubMed PMID: 22553967.

50. Dodd JM, Catcheside B, Scheil W. Can shoulder dystocia be reliably predicted? The Australian &amp; New 
Zealand Journal of Obstetrics &amp; Gynaecology. 2012 Jun;52(3):248-52. PubMed PMID: 22428758.

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51. Hodyl NA, Stark MJ, Scheil W, Clifton VL. Maternal asthma is a significant contributor to neonatal morbidity. 
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 01/2011; 2:S120-S121. 

52. Hodyl NA, Stark MJ, Scheil W, Grzeskowiak LE, Clifton VL. Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma 
and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. European Respiratory Journal: 2013 erj00549-02013.

53. Baghurst, P, Robson, S, Antoniou, G, Scheil, W and Bryce, R.  The association between increasing maternal 
age at first birth and decreased rates of spontaneous vaginal birth in South Australia from 1991 to 2009. 
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2014; 54:237 243. doi:10.1111/
ajo.12182.

54. Baghurst P. The case for retaining severe perineal tears as an indicator of the quality for obstetric care. 
ANZJOG 2013; 53(1): 3-8.

55. Hodyl NA, Grzeskowiak LE,Stark MJ, Scheil W, Clifton VL. The impact of Aboriginal status, cigarette 
smoking and smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes in South Australia. MJA 2015; 201(5): 274-278.

56. Smithers LG, Searle AK, Chittleborough CR, Scheil W, Brinkman SA, Lynch JW. A whole-of-population 
study of term and post-term gestational age at birth and children s development. BJOG 2015; DOI: 
10.1111/1471-0528.13324.

57. Mittiga C, Ettridge K, Martin K, Tucker G, Dubyna R, Catcheside B, Scheil W, Maksimovic L. 
Sociodemographic correlates of smoking in pregnancy and antenatal care attendance in Indigenous and 
non-Indigenous women in South Australia. Australian Journal of Primary Health Research 2015: http://
dx.doi.org/10.1071/PY15081.

58. Ramanan S, Svigos J, Scheil W, Somers R, Dodd J. The Effect of Maternal Age and Maternal BMI on the 
Robson Ten Group Classification System: FC 9.11 Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2015. 
41:52.

59. Verburg, P, Tucker G, Scheil W, Dekker G &amp; Roberts C. Opposite trends in seasonality of gestational diabetes 
mellitus and pregnancy induced hypertensive disorders   A South Australian population study. Placenta 
2015, 36 (9) A42. 

60. Verburg PE, Tucker G, Scheil W, Erwich JJHM, Dekker GA, Roberts CT. Sexual Dimorphism in Adverse 
Pregnancy Outcomes   A Retrospective Australian Population Study 1981-2011. PLoS ONE 2016,11(7): 
e0158807. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158807.

61. Middleton P, Bubner T, Glover K, Rumbold A, Weetra D, Scheil W, Brown S.  Partnerships are crucial : 
an evaluation of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program in South Australia. Australian and New Zealand 
Journal of Public Health 2017; 41: 21 26. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12599.

4. Perinatal mortality

1. Roder D, Chan A, Esterman A. Birthweight   specific trends in perinatal mortality by hospital category in 
South Australia, 1985   1990. MJA 1993; 158: 664-667.

2. Connon AF, Chan A on behalf of the Postneonatal Subcommittee, maternal, perinatal and Inmfant 
Mortality Committee. Accidental deaths of babies in the postneonatal period in South Australia (letter). 
MJA 1994;161:397. 

3. Roder D, Chan A, Priest K. Perinatal mortality trends among South Australian Aboriginal births 1981-92. J 
Paediatr Child Health 1995; 31: 446-450.

4. Haslam R, McPhee A, Chan A, Keane R. Neonatal mortality   a system of classification and trends in South 
Australia. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, 
Melbourne, 1999. P86.

5. Robson S, Chan A, Keane RJ, Luke CG. Subsequent birth outcomes after an unexplained stillbirth: 
preliminary population-based retrospective cohort study. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;41: 29-35.

6. Flenady V, Chan A, Haslam R, King J, Tudehope D, McCowan L. Cause specific perinatal mortality in 
Australia and New Zealand using a new clinical classification system (ANZACPM and ANZNDC). Perinatal 
Society of Australia and New Zealand 7th Annual Congress, Hotel Grand Chancellor, Hobart, Tasmania, 
March 9th-12th 2003, A87.

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7. Dodd JM, Robinson JS, Crowther CA, Chan A. Stillbirth and neonatal outcomes in South Australia, 1991-
2000. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189: 1731-1736.

8. Chan A, King JF, Flenady V, Haslam RH, Tudehope DI. Classification of perinatal deaths: Development of the 
Australian and New Zealand classifications. J Paediatr Child Health 2004;40: 340-347.

9. Flenady V, King J, Chan A, McCowan L, Tudehope D, Haslam R, Charles A, Roberts C for the Perinatal 
Mortality Audit Guidelines Working Party of the PSANZ Perinatal Mortality Special Interest Group. 
Development of Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality Audit incorporating psychological and 
social aspects of perinatal bereavement. Before and Beyond Birth. Abstract Book. Perinatal Society of 
Australia and New Zealand 9th Annual Congress, Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, 
13-16 March 2005, P58.

10. De Lange TE, Budde MP, Heard AR, Tucker G, Kennare R, Dekker GA. Avoidable risk factors in perinatal 
deaths: a perinatal audit in South Australia. Aust NZ J Obs Gynaecol 2008;48:50-57.

11. Kennare R, Scheil W, Tucker G. A public health approach to review of sudden unexpected infant deaths   
challenges and interventions. Australian Journal of Child and Family Health Nursing 2015; 12: 1.

5. Caesarean section

1. Jonas O, Chan A, Macharper T. Caesarean Section in South Australia, 1986. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 
1989; 29: 99-106.

2. Chan A. Epidemiology of the rising Caesarean section rate. Proceedings, 14th Annual Congress Australian 
Perinatal Society, Adelaide, March 1996, A70.

3. Chan A, Keane RJ, Scott J. Elective Caesarean section and child deprivation (letter). Lancet 1996; 347: 
1196.

4. Kennare, R. Why is the caesarean section rate rising? MIDIRS Midwifery Digest 2003; 13 (4): 503-508.

5. Kennare R, Heard A, Chan A. Is caesarean section in the first birth a problem for women in the next 
birth? Before and Beyond Birth. Abstract Book. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 9th Annual 
Congress. Ade;laide Convention Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, March 13-16 2005, A 127. 

6. Kennare R, Tucker G, Heard A, Chan A. Risks of adverse outcomes in the next birth after caesarean delivery. 
Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:270-276.

7. Dekker G, Chan A, Luke C, Priest K, Riley M, Halliday J, King J, Gee V, O Neill M, Snell M, Cull V, Cornes S. 
Risk of uterine rupture in Australian women attempting vaginal birth after one prior caesarean section: a 
retrospective population-based cohort study. BJOG 2010;117:1358 1365.

8. Smithers LG, Mol BW, Wilkinson C, Lynch JW. Implications of caesarean section for children s school 
achievement: a population-based study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 
2016 DOI: 10.1111/ajo.12475

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Appendix 1: Definitions

Abortion rate:

 =                                                                                                             x 1,000
Estimated resident population of same group in the same year

Number of induced abortions in a group of women in a year  

The abortion rate per 1,000 women in the reproductive age group 15-44 years has been calculated in this report 
using as the numerator all abortions; the denominator used has been the estimated resident population for women 
aged 15-44 years in that year.

Abortion proportion:

Abortions + live births

Abortions
 =   

This is often called the abortion ratio, which is strictly: 
Live births

Abortion

Apgar score: A numerical scoring system applied after birth (usually at 1 minute and again at 5 minutes) to evaluate 
the condition of the baby, as specified below:

Sign
Score

0 1 2

Heart rate Absent Slow (below 100) Over 100

Respiratory effort Absent Slow, irregular Good, crying

Muscle tone Flaccid Some flexion of extremities Active motion

Reflex irritability No response Grimace Vigorous cry

Colour Blue, pale Body pink, extremities blue Completely pink

Birthweight: The first weight of a fetus or newborn obtained after birth.  This is preferably measured within the first 
hour of life before significant post-natal weight loss has occurred.

Low birthweight:  Birthweight of less than 2,500g.
Very low birthweight:  Birthweight of less than 1,500g.

Body Mass Index (BMI):  weight (in kg)   height2 (in metres).
This is used as a standard for recording obesity statistics and also as a measure of underweight. However the 
categories do not take into account factors such as frame size, muscularity, varying proportions of components such 
as fat, bone, cartilage and water, and may be misleading in athletes, children and some ethnic groups. The categories 
for describing weight using BMI are:

BMI category Name
&lt;18.5 Underweight
18.5  to &lt; 25 Normal
25 to &lt; 30 Overweight
30 to &lt; 35 Obese
35 to &lt; 40 Severely obese
40 or greater Morbidly obese

Caesarean section: Birth of a child by an abdominal operation.
Elective caesarean section: One which takes place as a planned procedure before the spontaneous onset 
of labour.

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Appendix



Emergency caesarean section:  One which is undertaken for a complication:
(a) before the onset of labour or
(b) during labour, whether that labour is of spontaneous onset or following induction of labour.

Fertility rates:

Age-specific fertility rate:

Estimated resident population of women of that age group in the same year

Number of live births to women in an age group in a year
x 1,000

General fertility rate:

Estimated resident population of womens aged 15 - 44  years in the same year

Total number of live births in a year
x 1,000

Total fertility rate (TFR): The sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of women per female 
population of that age). It represents the number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she 
experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life. 

Gestational age:  The duration of pregnancy in completed weeks determined by the best obstetric estimate, using 
ultrasonography and the first day of the last normal menstrual period.

Induction of labour:  An intervention undertaken to stimulate the onset of labour by pharmacological or other 
means.

Live birth: The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the 
duration of pregnancy, which after such separation breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of 
the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical 
cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

Maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, 
irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy 
or its management  but not from accidental or incidental causes.1

Maternal deaths are divided into two groups:

1. Direct obstetric deaths: those resulting from obstetric complications of the pregnant state (pregnancy, labour and 
puerperium) from interventions, omissions, incorrect treatment, or from a chain of events resulting from any of the above.

2. Indirect obstetric deaths: those resulting from previous existing disease or disease that developed during pregnancy 
and which was not due to direct obstetric causes, but which was aggravated by physiologic effects of pregnancy.

As an extension of the WHO definition, accidental and incidental deaths occurring in pregnant women are also 
reviewed by the Maternal, Perinatal and Infant Mortality Committee so as to avoid missing indirect deaths which may 
be difficult to distinguish from incidental deaths. Examples of incidental deaths are deaths from drowning and road 
accidents, where the pregnancy is unlikely to have contributed significantly to the death, although it may be possible 
to postulate a remote association.

Multigravida: A woman who has been pregnant more than once.

Parity:  The total number of previous pregnancies resulting in live births or stillbirths.

Perinatal deaths:
Early fetal death: Death in a fetus of less than 400g birthweight, and of less than 20 weeks gestation.  
A miscarriage is a spontaneous early fetal death.

Fetal death: Death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from a woman of a product of conception, 
irrespective of the duration of pregnancy; the death is indicated by the fact that after such separation the 
fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the 
umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.

1 World Health Organisation. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Tenth Revision. Volume 2. Geneva: WHO, 
1993, p 134.

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Appendix



Late fetal death or stillbirth: Death in a fetus of at least 400g birthweight, or of at least 20 weeks gestation.

Late fetal death rate or stillbirth rate:

=                                                                                           x 1,000
Number of live births and still births in that year

Number of late fetal deaths or stillbirths in any year

Neonatal death: Death of a liveborn infant within 28 days of birth.

Neonatal death rate:

 =                                                                     x 1,000
Number of live births in that year

Number of neonatal deaths in any year

Perinatal death:  Includes late fetal death (stillbirth) and neonatal death.

Perinatal mortality rate (PMR):

=                                                                           x 1,000
Number of stillbirths and live births

Number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths

For South Australian statistics, the rate refers to live births and stillbirths of at least 400g birthweight or  
20 weeks gestation.

For national statistics, the rate refers to all births of at least 20 weeks gestation or 400g birthweight, and 
neonatal deaths occurring within 28 days of birth.

For international comparison, the rate refers to all births of at least 1,000g birthweight or, when birthweight 
is unavailable, of at least 28 weeks gestation and neonatal deaths occurring within seven days of birth (as 
recommended by WHO).

Preterm: less than 37+0 completed weeks gestation.

Primigravida: A woman pregnant for the first time.

Primipara: A pregnant woman who has had no previous pregnancy resulting in a live birth or stillbirth.

Race
1.  Caucasian: individuals of European descent.
2.  Aboriginal: this includes part-Aboriginals as well as full blood Aboriginals.  An Aboriginal is a person of 

Aboriginal descent who identifies as an Aboriginal and is accepted as such by the community in which he 
or she lives.

3.  Asian: (exclude Asia Minor) - In this category, include women originating from all Asian countries, 
including the Indian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka), who were formerly 
listed as  Other  race.

4.  Torres Strait Islander (TSI): A Torres Strait Islander is a person of Torres Strait Islander descent who 
identifies as a Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he or she lives.

5.  Aboriginal &amp; TSI: persons of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent. 
6.  Other:  Races other than (1) - (5).  Include women from the Middle East and Africa.

Guidelines for use regarding Indigenous Status - categories (2), (4) and (5).

There are three components to the definition:
 &gt; descent

 &gt; self identification

 &gt; community acceptance

It is not possible to collect the three components of the definition in a single question. The Australian Bureau 
of Statistics (ABS) proposes that the focus of a single question should be the descent, the first component 
of the definition. The ABS therefore proposes the use of the following alternative questions, depending on 
whether the person is present or not.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  93

Appendix



Where the person is present :  Are you of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin? ;

OR

where the person is not present and someone who knows the person well responds for him/her:  Is the 
person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin? 

If the response is  Yes , then clarify whether the person is of Aboriginal origin (2), Torres Strait Islander 
origin (4) or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin (5).

Self reporting of descent is not equivalent to self reporting of identity but because of the absence of a 
second  identity  question some respondents will interpret the  origin  question to mean both descent and 
identification. What identification in the context of the variable Indigenous Status should measure is an 
individual s self assessed historical and cultural affiliation.

Termination of pregnancy:  (synonym   induced abortion) The removal or expulsion of a pregnancy from the uterus 
via surgical or medical intervention,  performed by a medical practitioner in a prescribed hospital in South Australia, 
on specified grounds under the Criminal Law Consolidation Act and notified under the Criminal Law Consolidation 
(Medical Termination of Pregnancy) Regulations 1996. Terminations of pregnancy at gestations of 20 weeks or later  
or where the fetus weighs at least 400g, performed by induction of labour resulting in a birth  are included in the 
South Australian perinatal data collection. These are usually for congenital abnormalities or medical reasons.

Total abortion rate = the sum of the five-year age-specific induced abortion rates multiplied by 5.  

This represents the number of induced abortions 1,000 women would have during their lifetime if they experienced 
the rates of the year shown.

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 94

Appendix



Appendix 2: 2015 Supplementary Birth Record Form

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  95

Appendix



Appendix 3: Congenital Abnormality Form

Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015page 96

Appendix

page 96



Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015 page  97

Appendix

page  97



For more information 

Pregnancy Outcome (Statistics) Unit 
Epidemiology Branch 
SA Health, Government of South Australia 
Citi Centre Building 
11 Hindmarsh Square  
Adelaide 5000 South Australia

Postal Address 
Pregnancy Outcome (Statistics) Unit 
SA Health, Government of South Australia  
PO Box 6 Rundle Mall 
Adelaide  5000 South Australia 
Telephone: (08) 8226 6382 
Fax: (08) 8226 6672 
Web: www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/pregnancyoutcomes  
E-mail: Pregnancy.Stats@health.sa.gov.au

Public-I2-A1

  Department for Health and Ageing, Government of South Australia.  
All rights reserved.  FIS: 17110.1   ISSN: 0819-3835   September 2017.

www.ausgoal.gov.au/creative-commons



	Staff
	Acknowledgements
	Executive Summary
	1. Numbers and fertility rates
	2. Place of birth
	3. Teenage women
	4. Older women and first time mothers
	5. Country of birth and race
	6. Smoking during pregnancy and Body Mass Index
	7. Antenatal care and length of stay
	8. Aboriginal women and babies
	9. Procedures
	10. Method of birth
	11. Multiple births
	12. Abortions
	13. Perinatal mortality

	I. Introduction
	1. The Perinatal Statistics Collection
	2. The Abortion Statistics Collection

	II. Mothers and Babies: Characteristics &amp; Outcomes
	1. Place of residence of mother
	2. Place of birth of baby
	3. Maternal and baby race
	4. Maternal age
	5. Country of birth
	6. Marital status and type of patient
	7. Occupation of father and mother
	8. Previous pregnancy outcomes
	9a. Gestation at first antenatal visit
	
9b. Body Mass Index (BMI)
	9c. Antenatal visits
	9d. Type of antenatal care
	10. Smoking
	11. Medical conditions
	12. Obstetric complications
	13. Procedures performed in current pregnancy
	14a. Onset of labour
	14b. Reasons for induction of labour
	15a. Presentation and method of birth
	15b. Reason for caesarean section
	16. Complications of labour and birth and perineal status after birth
	17. Fetal monitoring during labour
	18. Analgesia for labour and anaesthesia for birth
	19. Postnatal length of stay of women
	20. Sex of baby
	21. Birthweight and gestation
	22. Birth injuries
	23. Treatment given in neonatal period
	24. Level of care* utilised
	25. Length of stay of babies
	26. Congenital anomalies
	27. Multiple births
	28. Perinatal mortality
	29. Home births
	30. Birthing unit births

	III. Terminations of Pregnancy
	1. Numbers and rates
	2. Age of women
	3. Place of residence and place where termination performed
	4. The reason for termination
	5. Gestation, method and complications
	6. Previous terminations. Total termination of pregnancy rate and total first termination of pregnancy rate

	IV. Obstetric Profiles by Hospital Category
	V. Clinical and Maternity Performance Indicators
	1. Clinical indicators
	INDICATOR 1: Smoking in pregnancy 
	INDICATOR 2: Antenatal care in the first trimester for all women giving birth
	INDICATOR 3: Episiotomy for women having their first baby and giving birth vaginally
	INDICATOR 4: Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes for births at or after term
	INDICATOR 5: Induction of labour for selected primiparae
	INDICATOR 6: Caesarean section for selected primiparae
	INDICATOR 7: Normal (non-instrumental) vaginal birth for selected primiparae
	INDICATOR 8: Instrumental vaginal birth for selected primiparae
	INDICATOR 9: General anaesthetic for women giving birth by caesarean section
	INDICATOR 10: Small babies among births at or after 40 weeks gestation

	2. Maternity performance indicators, hospitals with at least 550 births per year

	VI. Trends In Perinatal Statistics In South Australia, 1981-2015
	Trends in Perinatal Statistics in South Australia (SA), 1985   2015

	VII.	Summary Statistics for 2015
	1. Number of births
	2. Place of birth
	3. Sex
	4. Plurality and condition at birth
	5. Race of women
	6. Obstetric interventions in 20,448 women who gave birth
	7. Low birthweight (&lt;2,500g)
	8. Congenital anomalies
	9. Perinatal mortality rates (numbers of deaths in parentheses)
	10. Terminations of pregnancy


	References
	Publications
	Annual Reports
	Other reports/papers
	1. Birth defects
	2. Termination of pregnancy
	3. Perinatal epidemiology
	4. Perinatal mortality
	5. Caesarean section


	Appendix 1: Definitions
	Appendix 2: 2015 Supplementary Birth Record Form?
	Appendix 3: Congenital Abnormality Form
	Table 1: Births and crude birth rate by ABS Statistical Geographical Boundaries (ASGS 2015) regions, 
South Australia, 2015
	Table 2: Total births notified in 2015, by place of birth and plurality, South Australia 
	Table 3: Hospital births by Perinatal Service Delineation, South Australia, 2015
	Table 4: Hospital births in South Australia in 2015 by race and hospital*
	Table 5: Race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 6: Race and birthplace category of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 7: Age and race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 8: Age   specific fertility rates (ASFR), South Australia, 2015
	Table 9: Country of birth, major groups,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 10: Specified country of birth,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 11: Marital status and age, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 12: Type of patient and marital status, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 13: Occupation* of father and mother, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 14: Parity by race, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 15: Previous pregnancy outcomes, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (multigravidae only, n= 13,795)
	Table 16: Gestation at first antenatal visit, women who gave birth, by race, South Australia, 2015 (n=19,818)
	Table 17: BMI of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 18: Antenatal visits by race, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 19: Type of antenatal care, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (n = 19,818)
	Table 20: Tobacco smoking status at first antenatal visit, non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 21: Average number of tobacco cigarettes smoked per day in the second half of pregnancy, 
non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 22: Medical conditions in current pregnancy, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 23: Frequency of some obstetric complications, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 24: Procedures performed in current pregnancy, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 25: Onset of labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 26: Method of induction of labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 27: Augmentation of labour after spontaneous onset, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 28: Method of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 29: Method of birth by presentation, all births, South Australian 2015 (n=20,154)
	Table 30: Method of birth in breech presentation, by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015 (n= 912)
	Table 31: Frequency of some complications of labour and birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 32: CTG performed during labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 33: Fetal scalp pH taken during labour, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 34: Analgesia for labour,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 35: Anaesthesia for birth,* women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 36: Postnatal length of stay by type of patient, women who gave birth in South Australian hospitals, 2015
	Table 37: Average postnatal length of stay by type of patient and type of birth, women who gave birth in South Australian hospitals, 2015
	Table 38: Sex of baby, all births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 39: 	Birthweight distribution of all births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 40: Birth injuries* in 20,001 live births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 41: Neonatal treatment given, all live births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 42: Level of nursery care* utilised by birthweight, all live births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 43: 	Length of stay of liveborn babies in hospital, South Australia, 2015
	Table 44: Selected congenital anomalies notified to the perinatal statistics collection 2005-2015, South Australia.
	Table 45: Birthweight by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 46: Gestation at birth by plurality all births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 47: Perinatal outcome by plurality, all births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 48: Perinatal mortality by birthweight, all births, South Australia, 2015
	
Table 49: Perinatal mortality by gestational age at birth, South Australia, 2015
	Table 50: Perinatal mortality, South Australia, 2015 (all births of specified birthweight/gestation)
	Table 51: Perinatal mortality by race, all births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 52: Planned home births by age of women, South Australia, 2015
	Table 53: Method of birth in planned home births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 54: Birthweight distribution of planned home births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 55: Perinatal outcome in planned home births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 56: Planned birthing unit births by age of women, South Australia, 2015
	Table 57: Method of birth in planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 58: Birthweight distribution of planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 59: Perinatal outcome in planned birthing unit births, South Australia, 2015
	Table 60: Number* of pregnancy terminations, and rate per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 
South Australia, 1970-2015
	Table 61: Terminations of pregnancy by age, South Australia, 2015
	Table 62: Termination of pregnancy and live birth rates and termination of pregnancy proportions by age, South Australia, 2015
	Table 63: Terminations by place of residence, South Australia, 2015
	Table 64: Terminations by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Table 65: 	Terminations by category of doctor, South Australia, 2015
	Table 66: 	Reason for termination for fetal reasons, South Australia, 2015
	Table 67: Complications of termination procedures, South Australia, 2015
	Table 68: Complications by method of termination procedure, South Australia, 2014
	Table 69: Women with previous terminations by age, South Australia, 2015
	Table 70: Calculation of total induced abortion rate (TAR) for South Australia, 2015*
	Table 71: Calculation of total first induced abortion rate (TFAR) for South Australia, 2015
	Table 72: 	Obstetric profiles by hospital category, South Australia, 2015: live births and stillbirths of ?400g 
or ?20 weeks gestation#
	Table 73: Socio-demographic aspects of perinatal statistics, South Australia, 1981 and 2006   2015
	Table 74: Obstetric aspects of perinatal statistics, South Australia, 1981 and 2006   2015
	Figure 1: South Australian hospitals with obstetric beds in 2015 
	Figure 2: Hospitals with obstetric beds, Central Region of South Australia, 2015 
	Figure 3: Distribution of hospital births by hospital category, South Australia, 2015 (n=20,054)
	Figure 4: Age and race of women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (n=19,818)
	Figure 5: Reasons for induction of labour, South Australia, 2015 (n=6,437) 
	Figure 6: Method of birth, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015 (n = 19,818)
	Figure 7: Reason for caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 (n=6,947) 
	Figure 8: Reason for elective caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 (n=3,417)
	Figure 9: Reason for emergency caesarean section, South Australia, 2015 (n=3,530)
	Figure 10: Perinatal mortality rate by birthweight, all births, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 11: Pregnancy termination rate per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, South Australia, 1970-2015
	Figure 12: Termination of pregnancy and live births by age, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 13: Teenage pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and birth rates, South Australia, 1970-2015
	Figure 14: Percentage of Aboriginal women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 15: Percentage of women with &lt;7 antenatal visits by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 16: Percentage of teenage women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 17: Percentage of women 35 years or more by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 18: Percentage of single women by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 19: Percentage of women with 4 or more prior livebirths by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 20: Percentage of women with 1 or more prior perinatal deaths by hospital category, 
South Australia, 2015
	Figure 21: Percentage of women with obstetric complications by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 22: Percentage of women with complications during labour or birth by hospital category, 
South Australia, 2015
	Figure 23: Percentage of women with induction of labour by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 24: Percentage of women having epidural analgesia by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 25: Percentage of breech births by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 26: Percentage of emergency caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 27: Percentage of elective caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 28: Percentage of total caesarean sections by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 29: Percentage of births with birthweight below 2,500g by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 30: Percentage of births with gestation less than 37 weeks by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 31: Percentage of births with prolonged hospitalisation by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	Figure 32: Percentage of live births requiring neonatal intensive care by hospital category, 
South Australia, 2015
	Figure 33: Percentage of births with birth defects by hospital category, South Australia, 2015
	
Figure 34: Induction of labour proportion for selected primiparae, South Australian hospitals 
with ?550 births per year, 2015
	Figure 35: Caesarean section rate for selected primiparae, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015
	Figure 36: VBAC: Proportion of women who had a vaginal birth following a previous primary (first) caesarean section and no intervening births, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015
	Figure 37: Proportion of selected primiparae with an intact perineum after a vaginal birth, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015
	Figure 38: TERM NICU: proportion of term babies admitted to NICU for reasons other than congenital abnormality, South Australian hospitals with ?550 births per year, 2015
	Figure 39: SPMR (Standardized Perinatal Mortality Ratio) for all births, South Australian hospitals with 
?550 births per year, 2015
	Figure 40: SPMR (Standardized Perinatal Mortality Ratio) for all births, South Australian hospitals with 
?550 births per year, 2011-2015
	Figure 41: Percentage of teenage women among women giving birth in South Australia, 1985-2015
	Figure 42: Percentage of women aged 35 years and over among women giving birth in South Australia, 
1985-2015
	Figure 43: Percentage of primiparous women aged 35 years and over in South Australia, 1985-2015
	Figure 44: Percentage of Aboriginal women and Asian women among women giving birth in South Australia, 1985-2015
	Figure 45: Percentage of women never married and with no de facto partner among women giving birth in 
South Australia, 1985-2015
	Figure 46: Percentage of multiple births among births in South Australia, 1985-2015
	Figure 47: Percentage of low birthweight babies among births in South Australian, 1985-2015
	Figure 48: South Australian standardised perinatal mortality ratio (SPMR), 1985-2015

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