Surface water includes water derived from dams, creeks, rivers and streams.
Surface water supplies are more prone to contamination from sources such as animal and human waste and algal blooms.
Due to the potential for contamination, surface water is not recommended as a source of drinking water unless additional treatment processes such as filtration and disinfection are in place.
Unless drinking water quality can be assured through disinfection and routine testing, surface water should be utilised for purposes other than drinking such as irrigation and toilet flushing. Treatment may still be necessary for non-drinking uses.