Hospital-acquired infections (also known as healthcare associated infections) are complications that can occur as a result of medical treatment and are caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Some of these micro-organisms can be found in the environment, and some live normally within the body. The types of hospital-acquired infections that are most commonly seen include those associated with a surgical wound or the insertion of medical devices such as an intravenous drip, urinary catheter or wound drain.
See the following for more information:
- How hospitals work to prevent infection
- How you can reduce the risk of infection whilst in hospital
- Common multi-resistance organisms
- Clostridium difficile infections information
- Medical device care
- How to reduce infection in the community
In South Australian hospitals, healthcare workers maintain high infection control standards and participate in local and national programs to minimise the risk of infection. Healthcare facilities use a range of policies and procedures to reduce the risk of infection, including:
- washing hands with soap or using alcohol-based hand rub
- wearing protective equipment such as gloves, gowns, masks and eye shields
- separating infectious patients from others, usually in a single room
- disinfecting medical equipment between patient use
- maintaining a clean environment.
More information on what SA Health is doing to prevent infection in healthcare settings can be found on the healthcare associated infection page for clinicians.
Despite these efforts, some patients will still be at greater risk than others of contracting an infection while in hospital. This is especially true for people who are seriously unwell with diseases that affect their body's ability to fight infection, such as those suffering burns or certain medical conditions such as cancer.
There are several things you can do to help prevent the occurrence of an infection whilst in hospital:
- always wash your hands after using the toilet or a commode
- wash or clean your hands with a wipe before eating
- do not be afraid to ask a healthcare worker if they have cleaned their hands
- avoid touching a wound or inserted device (for example, drips or drainage tubes)
- tell the healthcare worker looking after you if the area around any of the lines or tubes inserted into your body becomes red, swollen or painful
- discourage visitors who are feeling unwell
- stop smoking before any surgery as smoking increases the risk of infection.
More information on how you can prevent an infection while you are in hospital:
Multi-resistant organisms (often called "superbugs") are bacteria that have developed resistance to certain antibiotics that are usually used to treat infection. Infections caused by these bacteria are usually more difficult to treat due to the reduced number of effective antibiotics available. Some infections may require treatment in hospital.
Some people can carry these resistant bacteria on their skin or in their intestines without any signs or symptoms of illness; this is called colonisation. If the organism enters the site of a medical device such as a urinary catheter or intravenous drip, operation site or wound, it can cause an infection.
All bacteria have the ability to become resistant to certain antibiotics, however, generally the most common ones encountered in the healthcare setting are:
- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (PDF 116KB)
- Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) (PDF 119KB)
- Multi-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MRGN) (PDF 119KB).
Clostridium difficile (often abbreviated to “C. diff”) is a spore forming bacterium that can often be found in people’s intestines and the environment.However, it does not always cause disease and is present in up to 10% of health adults without causing symptoms.The trigger for infection is believed to be caused by disturbance of the normal bowel microflora during antibiotic treatment.
More information regarding CDI can be found on the Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) – Frequently asked questions (PDF 115KB).
Medical devices, such as intravenous drips, urinary catheters and wound drains, can be associated with infections if not looked after properly, especially when you go home from hospital with a device in place.
A device that you may go home with is a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC). For information about how you can prevent infection if you go home with a PICC, read the following brochures and fact sheets:
- PICC brochure - adult (PDF 120KB)
- PICC fact sheet - adult (PDF 203KB)
- PICC fact sheet - paediatric (PDF 152KB)
There are several things you can do to help prevent the occurrence of infections in the community setting. There are similar to those listed whilst being admitted to hospital; however the important ones are:
- always wash your hands after using the toilet
- wash your hands before preparing food and eating
- wash your hands regularly whilst caring for babies or sick people.
For more information on how you can prevent infections in the community settings: