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Distinguishing vasovagal episodes from anaphylaxis reactions following immunisation

Immunisation providers must be able to distinguish between a vasovagal episode (fainting), convulsions and anaphylaxis.

Vasovagal episode (fainting) is relatively common after the vaccination of adults and adolescents, but infants and children rarely faint. Where as anaphylaxis following routine vaccination is very rare, but can be fatal.

Sudden loss of consciousness in young children should be presumed to be an anaphylactic reaction, particularly if a strong central pulse is absent. A strong central pulse (for example, carotid) persists during a vasovagal episode or convulsion.

For a printable version, download the Vasovagal episode or Anaphylaxis chart (PDF 62KB).

  Vasovagal Anaphylaxis
Onset Immediate, usually within minutes of or during receiving the vaccine Usually within 15 minutes but can occur within hours of receiving the vaccine
Skin Generalised pallor, cool clammy skin
  • skin itchiness
  • generalised skin erythema (redness)
  • urticaria (weals)
  • angioedema (localised or generalised swelling of the deeper layers of the skin or subcutaneous tissues)
Respiratory Normal respiration, may be shallow but not laboured
  • cough, wheeze, stridor, hoarseness
  • signs of respiratory distress (tachypnoea, cyanosis, rib recession)
  • upper airway swelling (lip, tongue, throat, uvula or larynx)
Cardiovascular
  • bradycardia weak/absent peripheral pulse, but with strong central pulse (example carotid)
  • hypotension, usually transient and corrects in supine position
  • loss of consciousness, improves once supine or head down position
  • tachycardia, weak/absent central pulse
  • hypotension, sustained and no improvement without specific treatment
  • loss of consciousness, no improvement once supine or in head down position
Neurological Feels faint, light-headed Sense of severe anxiety and distress
Gastrointestinal Nausea, vomiting Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, nausea and /or vomiting

 

Management of anaphylaxis

Rapid IM administration of adrenaline is the foundation for treatment of anaphylaxis.

  • If patient unconscious, place on left side and maintain airway
  • if patient conscious, place in supine position, elevate legs (unless results in breathing difficulties)
  • if showing signs of anaphylaxis give adrenaline by deep IM injection into the anterolateral thigh
  • dial 000 and ask for an ambulance. Never leave patient alone
  • administer O2 at a high flow rate, if available
  • if no improvement in patient’s condition within 5 minutes, repeat doses of adrenaline every 5 minutes until condition improves or medical assistance arrives
  • check breathing, if absent, commence basic life support or appropriate CPR
  • transfer to hospital for further observation and/or treatment
  • document the event including time(s) and dose(s) of adrenaline administration.

Adrenaline dose

Adrenaline 1:1000 = 0.01 ml/kg (0.01mg/kg) deep IM injection in thigh

Less than 1 year (approx. 5-10 kg) 0.05 to 0.1mL

1 to 2 years (approx 10 kg) 0.1 mL

2 to 3 years (approx 15 kg) 0.15 mL

4 to 6 years (approx 20 kg) 0.2 mL

7 to 10 years (approx 30 kg) 0.3 mL

10 to 12 years (approx 40 kg) 0.4 mL

greater than 12 years and adult (over 50kg) 0.5 mL

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