Medical care following a sexual assault
Do I need to see a doctor?
This is your choice. Often it is a good idea to see a doctor as soon as possible to make sure you are OK and to talk about any concerns you have about your health.
Do I need to tell the doctor I have been raped or sexually assaulted?
That depends on the service you want. The doctor can assist you best if she/he knows why you are there.
What will happen if I see a doctor?
That depends on what your concerns are and what you want to have happen. A doctor can provide you with:
- information about your medical care and answers to your questions
- a health check to:
- check for possible injuries and their treatment
- talk about pregnancy testing
- talk about sexually transmitted infections including testing and treatment
- talk about the effects of the rape and sexual assault on your wellbeing, including feeling depressed or suicidal, eating and sleeping patterns, or level of anxiety
- provide a medical certificate if you need some time off work, school or university.
If you are thinking about reporting to the police, the doctor can collect evidence for the police with your consent (you can find more information under 'Forensic medical examination'). It is important that this done soon as possible.
The following information is about seeing a doctor at Yarrow Place, and the sorts of things the doctor might talk with you about.
Giving consent for a health check
The doctor will talk with you about your health concerns. The doctor will ask you if you want to be examined and talk with you about the examination. You will need to give consent for the examination, and may need to sign a consent form. Even after giving consent you can change your mind at any time and say ‘yes’ to some parts of the examination and ‘no’ to other parts. In South Australia, you can give consent and sign the consent form yourself when you are 16 years and older.
A lot of people who have been raped or sexually assaulted will have no injuries as a result of the assault. Some people will have injuries such as bruises, scratches and grazes. A small number of people will have serious injuries that need to be treated in hospital.
Bruising, aches, pain and stiffness may be more noticeable in the first few days after the assault.
Serious injuries such as broken bones and head injuries need to be assessed and treated in the Emergency Department at your local hospital. For less serious injuries such as bruises and abrasions, simple pain killers such as paracetamol may help. Warm baths or showers can help ease the discomfort. Please be aware of that forensic evidence can be lost if you shower or bath. If you have concerns please speak to a Yarrow Place worker. For bruises and other soft tissue injuries, ice packs (covered by a towel), and resting and elevating the injured area can be helpful. Abrasions should be kept clean and dry. If you have not recently had at tetanus vaccination, please see the doctor to organise a booster shot.
Genital and anal injuries
Injuries to this area can cause soreness, pain, bleeding or stinging when going to the toilet. Some people may experience pain or tenderness when having sex after the assault. These injuries generally heal quickly but new or heavier bleeding, abdominal pain or any other worrying symptoms need to be checked by a doctor.
Ice packs and firm padding can ease soreness. A small covered ice pack can be placed between a sanitary pad and the sore area. It should only be left in place until the ice has melted, for about 10 to 15 minutes and then removed. If the anal/genital injury is quite painful, you could talk to the doctor about using a local anaesthetic (numbing) gel on the area for a few days. If you are having sex, you may find that using a lubricating gel makes it more comfortable. Constipation may be a problem if there is an anal injury. Keeping bowel motions soft and regular by diet or medication such as Metamucil (available from the chemist without a script) is important because constipation can delay healing.
Domestic Violence, Safety and the Family Safety Framework
Sexual assault can occur in the context of domestic violence. Information for women and men who are in a domestic violence situation can be found via:
- the Don't Cross the Line website
- and by calling 1800RESPECT, Australia's national sexual assault, domestic and family violence counselling service, available 24 hours, 7 days a week 1800 737 732:
The Office for Women has developed the Family Safety Framework which provides assessment tools that can be used by your doctor and a referral procedure to fortnightly safety meetings which can improve your safety:
Strangulation can occur during domestic violence. Strangulation is a potentially very serious injury that should be evaluated by a doctor. If you have any neck or throat soreness, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or lost consciousness as a result of strangulation, you should be medically assessed at the hospital.
For women, if you were not using contraception at the time of the rape, you may want to take the Emergency Contraceptive Pill, Postinor-1 to reduce the chance that you will get pregnant. You can get this medication from most chemists without needing a prescription from the doctor. It is also available from Yarrow Place. Take tablet as a single dose.
Postinor-1 can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex but the sooner it is taken the more effective it is at preventing pregnancy.
Postinor-1 can sometimes cause nausea or vomiting. If vomiting occurs within 2 hours of taking the tablets, the medication will need to be taken again. Less common side effects are vaginal bleeding, headache, breast tenderness and dizziness.
Even though Postinor-1 is effective at preventing pregnancy, it is important to have a follow up pregnancy test to be sure. Talk to your doctor if you have abdominal pain or cramps or your next period is lighter than normal or is late.
If you are pregnant at the time of the assault you may be worried about your baby. It is unlikely that your baby will have been harmed but you can ask the doctor to check that your baby is OK. If you have any bleeding or abdominal pains it is very important to see your doctor.
If you are pregnant as a result of a rape, please see your doctor to discuss the options you have in relation to the pregnancy.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Many people who have been sexually assaulted are concerned about sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In South Australia getting an infection after a sexual assault is uncommon, however it is still important to check. Testing for sexually transmitted infections can be done in the first few days after an assault (called baseline testing). Testing at this time only shows whether or not you had an infection before the sexual assault. It is not necessary to have testing at this time but some people want baseline tests taken. Infections that the doctor might test for are chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and vaginal infections such as thrush.
For more information about the above STIs please visit the Clinic 275 web page.
The best time to test for infections after the assault are:
- 2-3 weeks for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and vaginal infections; and
- 3 months for a blood test for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis
There are medications available that may reduce your risk of developing a sexually transmitted infection. The doctor will talk with you about the risks of infection and the type of medication that you can take to help reduce the risk.
The psychological impacts of rape and sexual assault are often very significant. Trouble sleeping, anxiety, depression and thoughts of suicide are common reactions. Changes in sexual desire may occur. Remember, people do recover from the impact of rape. It is good to think about what you need to do to help you recover and how to keep safe in this process.
Some people have problems with drugs and alcohol, eating disorders and hurting themselves after being sexually assaulted. Although these coping strategies may provide relief, they may harm your health. Please think about safe ways to deal with the effects of the assault, such as talking to a friend, writing in a journal, and seeing a counsellor or your doctor.
Suicidal thoughts in particular can be very distressing. Talk to a trusted person about these thoughts and seek help from a health practitioner so that you can be safe until the thoughts are no longer a problem.
Drugs, alcohol and sexual assault
Sometimes people are concerned that they have been drugged and sexually assaulted. There are many ways that drugs and/or alcohol may be involved in sexual assaults. You may have been sexually assaulted when:
- you were under the influence of a drug that you were using for recreational purposes
- you were using prescription drugs and drinking alcohol and were unaware of the combined effects
- your drink was spiked for the purpose of sexual assault
- your drinks were a higher alcohol content than you were led to believe.
Typically, a person has been out to a club or party and feels intoxicated out of proportion to the amount of alcohol they have had. You may have gaps in your memory and wake up in a strange place and in circumstances that make you believe that you have been sexually assaulted.
If you are worried that this has happened to you, see your doctor or contact Yarrow Place to talk about what you can do in this situation.